tents of the accusations or if he were not given the chance to conduct his own defense or instruct a defense counsel. Particularly is he in no condition to comprehend the following rights of an accused set out in the Charter:

1. By Article 16, Section (a) of the Charter a copy of the Indictment in a language which he understands will be served on the accused at a suitably appointed time. The assurance given hereby for a sufficient preparation of the proceedings can not be guaranteed to Defendant Krupp von Bohlen on account of his state of disease. According to Section (c) of the same Article 16a preliminary interrogation of the defendant shall take place in a language intelligible to him. That is likewise impossible here. According to Section (d) of Article 16 the defendant moreover can not exercise his right of decision as to whether he will conduct his own defense or whether he would like to be defended by counsel. Also the right of the defendant as provided in Section (c) of producing evidence and of cross examining witnesses himself or by his counsel in his behalf can not be exercised by the defendant in view of his condition.

2. In the same manner as the Defendant Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach is not able to exercise the confirmed rights stated above in the preliminary proceedings he will also not be able to exercise in the Trial those rights guaranteed to him by Article 24 of the Charter. In the first place this concerns the statement which the accused has to render on inquiry as to whether he admits his guilt or not, a statement which is of particular importance for the course of the Trial and for the decision of the Tribunal. This is all the more important as this statement regarding guilt or innocence can be made exclusively by the accused himself according to his own judgment and after examining his conscience. So far as the procedure is admissible at all, the defense counsel could not at the request of the Court express himself on the question of guilt, as such a declaration presupposes the possibility of communication and understanding with the accused.

Also the defendant could not exercise the right to the last word to which he is entitled according to Article 24, Section (j).

The legislators who set up these guarantees for the defense cannot wish to deny them undeservedly to an accused who can not make use of them owing to illness. If by Article 12 of the Charter the Trial of an absent defendant is allowed, then this exception to the rule can be applied only to a defendant who is unwilling to appear though able to do so. As is the case with the criminal procedure rules of nearly all countries, it is on this principle that the rules and regulations concerning the trial of absent defendants are based.