NOTES

  1. Israel Gutman, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, vol. 4 (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1990), 1636-1637.

  2. Omer Bartov, “Whose History is it Anyway? The Wehrmacht and German Historiography,” in Hannes Heer & Klaus Naumann (eds.), War of Extermination: The German Military in World War II 1941-44, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 412.

  3. Hannes Heer, “Killing Fields: The Wehrmacht and the Holocaust in Belorussia, 1941-42,” in Hannes Heer & Klaus Naumann (eds.), War of Extermination: The German Military in World War II 1941-44, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 74.

  4. Aristotle Kallis, Nazi Propaganda and the Second World War, (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 68.

  5. Ulrich Herbert (ed.), National Socialist Extermination Policies, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 20.

  6. Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), 55.

  7. Herbert, 20-21.

  8. Ibid., 21.

  9. “The Treaty of Versailles,” The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History & Diplomacy, (Lillian Goldman Law Library, 2008), http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/partviii.asp

  10. Martin Kitchen, A History of Modern Germany, 1880-2000, (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 221.

  11. Robert Kershaw, War Without Garlands: Operation Barbarossa 1941-42, (New York: Sarpedon, 2000), 20.

  12. Wolfram Wette, The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality, (Cambridge: Havard UP, 2006), 67

  13. Henry Metelmann, Through Hell for Hitler, (Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens Limited, 1990), 16

  14. Goldhagen, 55.

  15. Wette, 150.

  16. Hamburg Institute for Social Research (ed), The German Army and Genocide: Crimes Against War Prisoners, Jews, and Other Civilians, 1939-1944, (New York: New York Press, 1999), 31.

  17. Immanuel Kant, Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals, (New York: Cosimo, 2008), 38.

  18. Moshe Pearlman, The Capture and Trial of Adolf Eichmann, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1963), 533.

  19. Kershaw, 19.

  20. Metelmann, 9.

  21. Wette, 75.

  22. Hannes Heer, “How Amorality Became Normality: Reflections on the Mentality of German Soldiers on the Eastern Front,” in in Hannes Heer & Klaus Naumann (eds.), War of Extermination: The German Military in World War II 1941-44, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 341.

  23. André Mineau, Operation Barbarossa: Ideology & Ethics Against Human Dignity, (Amsterdam: Rodopi B.V., 2004), 95.

  24. Kershaw, 19.

  25. Metelmann, 14-15

  26. Ibid., 15-16.

  27. Ibid., 19.

  28. Kershaw, 19.

  29. Anatol Rapoport (ed.), Carl von Clausewitz, On War, (New York: Dorset Press, 1968), 410

  30. Hans Ernst Fried, The Guilt of the German Army, (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1943), 21

  31. Szymon Datner, Crimes Against POWs: Responsibility of the Wehrmacht, (Warsaw: Western Press Agency, 1964), xxv

  32. Richard Carnicky, (2007) “The Impact of Political-Military Relations on the use of German Military Power During Operation-Barbarossa” (Master’s Thesis), Retrieved from: http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA471155 46

  33. Ibid., 47.

  34. Ibid., 54-55.

  35. Michael T. Florinsky, Fascism and National Socialism, (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1936), 6

  36. Ibid., 72.

  37. Ibid., 75.

  38. Ibid., 74

  39. Wette, 85

  40. Omer Bartov, The Eastern Front, 1941-45, German Troops and the Barbarisation of Warfare, (London: The Macmillan Press Ltd., 1985), 102.

  41. Kallis, 64

  42. Fried, 244.

  43. Kallis, 64

  44. Kallis, 64-65

  45. Ibid., 64.

  46. Ibid., 74.

  47. Mineau, 165

  48. Ibid., 166.

  49. Bartov, Barbarisation of Warfare, 103.

  50. Alexander Rossino, Hitler Strikes Poland: Blitzkrieg, Ideology & Atrocity, (Lawrence: UP of Kansas, 2003), 201

  51. Ibid., 208.

  52. Kershaw, 17.

  53. Rossino, Hitler Strikes Poland, 212.

  54. Truman Anderson, “Incident at Baranivka: German Reprisals and the Soviet Partisan Movement in Ukraine, October-December 1941,” in H. Heer & K. Naumann (eds.), War of Extermination: The German Military in WWII 1941-1944, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 300

  55. Datner, Crimes Against POWs, xix

  56. Mineau, 115

  57. Ibid., 97

  58. Mark Mazower, “Military Violence and the National Socialist Consensus: The Wehrmacht in Greece, 1941-44,” in Hannes Heer & Klaus Naumann (eds.), War of Extermination: The German Military in World War II 1941-44, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000),163.

  59. Jan P. Reemtsma, “The Concept of the War of Annihilation: Clausewitz, Ludendorff, Hitler,” in Hannes Heer & Klaus Naumann (eds.), War of Extermination: The German Military in World War II 1941-44, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 29.

  60. Mazower, in War of Extermination, 155.

  61. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 23.

  62. Rossino, Hitler Strikes Poland, 194

  63. Alexander Rossino, “Destructive Impulses: German Soldiers and the Conquest of Poland,” Holocaust & Genocide Studies, 11.3 (1997), 354-355

  64. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 25

  65. Rossino, Destructive Impulses, 357

  66. Szymon Datner, Crimes Committed by the Wehrmacht during the September Campaign and the Period of Military Government, (Poznan: Institute for Western Affairs, 1962), 39.

  67. Rossino, Destructive Impulses, 358-359

  68. Rossino, Hitler Strikes Poland, 159-160

  69. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 25

  70. Datner, Crimes Against POWs, xvii

  71. Ibid., 26.

  72. Ibid., 27

  73. Ibid., 31

  74. Rossino, 58.

  75. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 24

  76. Edward Westermann, “Shaping the Police Soldier as an Instrument for Annihilation,” in Alan Steinweis & Daniel Rogers (eds.), The Impact of Nazism: New Perspectives on the Third Reich and its Legacy, (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003), 142.

  77. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 24

  78. Ibid., 35

  79. Walter Manoschek, “‘Coming Along to Shoot Some Jews?’: the Destruction of the Jews in Serbia,” in Hannes Heer & Klaus Naumann (eds.), War of Extermination: The German Military in World War II 1941-44, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 39

  80. Ibid., 39.

  81. Christopher Browning, “The Wehrmacht in Serbia Revisited,” in Omer Bartov, Atina Grossman & Mary Nolan (eds.), Crimes of War: Guilt & Denial in the Twentieth Century, (New York: The New Press, 2002), 31-32.

  82. Ibid., 32.

  83. Department of the Army, “German Antiguerilla Operations in the Balkans (1941-1944),” Department of the Army Pamphlet, 20.243 (August 1954), 20-21.

  84. Manoschek, in War of Extermination, 40

  85. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 42

  86. Manoschek, in War of Extermination, 41

  87. Ibid., 42.

  88. Ibid., 43.

  89. Ibid., 44-45.

  90. Ibid., 45

  91. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 54

  92. Manoschek, in War of Extermination, 47

  93. Ibid., 48

  94. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 60

  95. Ibid., 64.

  96. Ibid., 68

  97. Wette, 103

  98. Manoschek, in War of Extermination, 49-50

  99. Hamburg Institute for Social Research, “Crimes of the German Wehrmacht: Dimensions of a War of Annihilation 1941-1944,” (Hamburg: Hamburger Edition, 2004), 24

  100. Datner, Crimes Against POWs, 61

  101. Mark Mazower, Inside Hitler’s Greece: The Experience of Occupation, 1941-1944, (Newhaven: Yale UP, 1993), 173.

  102. Hamburg Institute, Dimensions, 24

  103. Hamburg Institute, Dimensions, 26

  104. Mazower, in War of Extermination, 146-147

  105. Mazower, in War of Extermination, 153

  106. Wilhelm Keitel, “Directives for Special Areas to Order #21,” trans. by: Office of U.S. Chief of Council, 2.

  107. Walter v. Brauchitsch, “Nuremberg Trials of the OKW,” (Nuremburg: Nov. 19, 1945), 41.

  108. Datner, in Crimes Against POWs, 71.

  109. Mineau, 102

  110. Ibid., 103-104

  111. Ibid., 104-105

  112. Boll & Safrian, “On the Way to Stalingrad: The 6th Army in 1941-42,” in Hannes Heer & Klaus Naumann (eds.), War of Extermination: The German Military in World War II 1941-44, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 240.

  113. Datner, in Crimes Against POWs, 74

  114. Yitzhak Arad, Israel Gutman, & Abraham Margaliot, Documents on the Holocaust, (Lincoln: Nebraska UP, 1999), 376

  115. Boll & Safrian, in War of Extermination, 241

  116. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 98.

  117. Ibid., 94.

  118. Wette, 128

  119. Anderson, in War of Extermination, 279.

  120. Wette, 128

  121. Office of Military Government for Germany (US) & Office of the Director of Intelligence, “Himmler’s Files from Hallein,” World War II Operational Documents: 1945, 8.

  122. Wette, 107.

  123. Ibid., 104.

  124. Margers Vestermanis, “Local Headquarters Liepaja: Two Months of German Occupation in the Summer of 1941,” in Hannes Heer & Klaus Naumann (eds.), War of Extermination: The German Military in World War II 1941-44, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 225-226.

  125. Ibid., 232-233

  126. Andrew Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia, 1941-1944, (Riga: The Historical Institute of Latvia, 1996), 3.

  127. Ibid., 124.

  128. Ibid., 281.

  129. Ibid., 282.

  130. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 117

  131. Bohdan Wytwycky, The Other Holocaust: Many Circles of Hell, (Washington D.C.: The Novak report on the New Ethnicity, 1980), 65.

  132. Ibid., 67-68

  133. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 119.

  134. Heer, in War of Extermination, 58-59

  135. Ibid., 60-61

  136. Ibid., 62

  137. Ibid., 63

  138. Ibid., 69

  139. Ibid., 69-70

  140. Ibid., 55

  141. Ibid., 71

  142. Ibid., 107

  143. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 156.

  144. Hannes Heer, “Logic of the War of Extermination: The Wehrmacht and the Anti-Partisan War,” in Hannes Heer & Klaus Naumann (eds.), War of Extermination: The German Military in World War II 1941-44, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 108.

  145. Ibid., 109-110.

  146. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 164

  147. Ibid., 168.

  148. Heer, in War of Extermination, 118-119

  149. Joshua Rubenstein & Ilya Altman (eds.), The Unknown Black Book: The Holocaust in the German-Occupied Soviet Territories, (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2008), 51.

  150. Bohdan Krawchenko, “Soviet Ukraine Under Nazi Occupation, 1941-4,” in Yury Boshyk (ed.), Ukraine During World War II: History and its Aftermath, (Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1986), 15.

  151. Ibid., 16

  152. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 80

  153. Anderson, in War of Extermination, 301.

  154. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 84-85

  155. Ibid., 86

  156. Ibid., 88

  157. Anderson, in War of Extermination, 300

  158. Ernst Klee, Willi Dressen & Volker Riess (eds.), “The Good Old Days”: The Holocaust as Seen by its Perpetrators and Bystanders, (New York: Konecky & Konecky, 1988), 141-143.

  159. Boll & Safrian, in War of Extermination, 252.

  160. Klee, Good Old Days, 154.

  161. Boll & Safrian, in War of Extermination, 253

  162. Rubenstein, 52.

  163. Boll & Safrian, in War of Extermination, 253-254

  164. Klee, Ernst & Willi Dreßen (eds.), “Gott mit uns”: Der deutsche Vernichtungskrieg im Osten 1939-1944, (Frankfurt: S. Fischer, 1989), 118.

  165. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 92

  166. Wette, 120.

  167. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 110

  168. Ibid., 102.

  169. Ibid., 114.

  170. Geoffrey Megargee, War of Annihilation: Combat and Genocide on the Eastern Front, 1941, (Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2006), 115-116.

  171. Datner, Crimes Against POWs, 75

  172. Robert Kane, Disobedience and Conspiracy in the German Army, 1918-1945, (Jefferson: McFarland & Co. Inc. Publishers, 2002), 164.

  173. Kane, 164.

  174. Megargee, 39

  175. Datner, Crimes Against POWs, 78

  176. Boll & Safrian, in War of Extermination, 24

  177. Christian Streit, “Soviet Prisoners of War in the Hands of the Wehrmacht,” in Hannes Heer & Klaus Naumann (eds.), War of Extermination: The German Military in World War II 1941-44, (New York: Berghahn Books, 2000), 81.

  178. Megargee, 39

  179. Datner, Crimes Against POWs, 213

  180. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 100

  181. Streit, in War of Extermination, 87

  182. Datner, Crimes Against POWs, 217

  183. Hamburg Institute, Genocide, 148.

  184. Datner, Crimes Against POWs, 108

  185. Tom Segev, Simon Wiesenthal: The Life & Legends, (New York: Doubleday, 2010), 367.

  186. Heer, in War of Extermination, 119

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IMAGES

  1. Figure 1: Cooper, Matthew. The Nazi War Against Soviet Partisans, 1941-1944. New York: Stein and Day, 1979. 70-71.
  2. Figure 2: Hamburg Institute for Social Research (ed). The German Army and Genocide: Crimes Against War Prisoners, Jews, and Other Civilians, 1939-1944. New York: The New Press, 1999. 59.
  3. Figure 3: Marcuse, Harold. "Marcuse, Review of Barth, Dolchstosslegende, (2003)." UCSB Department of History. Web. 23 Jan. 2011. http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/publications/reviews/BarthRev069.htm#ill
  4. Figure 4: Hamburg Institute for Social Research (ed). The German Army and Genocide: Crimes Against War Prisoners, Jews, and Other Civilians, 1939-1944. New York: The New Press, 1999. 24.
  5. Figure 5: Hamburg Institute for Social Research (ed). The German Army and Genocide: Crimes Against War Prisoners, Jews, and Other Civilians, 1939-1944. New York: The New Press, 1999. 44.
  6. Figure 6: Hamburg Institute for Social Research (ed). The German Army and Genocide: Crimes Against War Prisoners, Jews, and Other Civilians, 1939-1944. New York: The New Press, 1999. 61.
  7. Figure 7: Mazower, Mark. Inside Hitler’s Greece: The Experience of Occupation, 1941-1944. Newhaven: Yale UP, 1993. 175.
  8. Figure 8: Kershaw, Robert. War Without Garlands: Operation Barbarossa 1941-42. New York: Sarpedon, 2000. 25.
  9. Figure 9: Cooper, Matthew. The Nazi War Against Soviet Partisans, 1941-1944. New York: Stein and Day, 1979. 70-71.
  10. Figure 10: Klee, Ernst, Willi Dressen & Volker Riess. ed. “The Good Old Days”: The Holocaust as Seen by its Perpetrators and Bystanders. New York: Konecky & Konecky, 1988. 26.
  11. Figure 11: Hamburg Institute for Social Research (ed). The German Army and Genocide: Crimes Against War Prisoners, Jews, and Other Civilians, 1939-1944. New York: The New Press, 1999. 133
  12. Figure 12: Hamburg Institute for Social Research (ed). The German Army and Genocide: Crimes Against War Prisoners, Jews, and Other Civilians, 1939-1944. New York: The New Press, 1999. 93.
  13. Figure 13: Gerbet, Klaus. ed. Generalfeldmarschall Fedor Von Bock: The War Diary, 1939-1945. Atglen: Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 1996. 192-193.
  14. Figure 14: Hamburg Institute for Social Research (ed). The German Army and Genocide: Crimes Against War Prisoners, Jews, and Other Civilians, 1939-1944. New York: The New Press, 1999. 149.
  15. Figure 15: Hamburg Institute for Social Research (ed). The German Army and Genocide: Crimes Against War Prisoners, Jews, and Other Civilians, 1939-1944. New York: The New Press, 1999. 143.