Dr Robert Jay Lifton THE NAZI DOCTORS:
                        Medical Killing and the
                            Psychology of Genocide ©
 
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Index 
A — D
 A  C

· abortions, 149; by prisoner doctors, 183, 224-25 prohibition of, 42 
· academic medicine, 37-40 
· Ache Indians, 489 
· Adelsberger, Lucie, 190-92 
· Adler, Alfred, 278 
· age of Nazi party members, 512 n59
· Ahnenerbe, 279n, 286 
· American Declaration of Independence, 35n 
· amphetamine toxicity, 517n47
· anthropological research, 284-87 
· anti-Semitism, 17; of Brandt, 116; doubling and, 434; Ernst B. and, 305; ethos of, 438-39; genocide and, 477, 478; of Haeckel, 441; of Höss, 461; intellectual-professional, 35; of Johann S., 131, 133, of Luther, 479; meaning and, 460; of Mengele, 377-78; nineteenth-century, 482; and participation in selections, 230-37; Polish, 11, 239-50, 264; prisoner doctors and, 231 ; of Wirths, 392-93 
· Archive für Rassen und Gesellscchaftsbiologie (Archive of Racial and Social Biology), 28, 441n 
· Arendt, Hannah, 12, 532n32 
· Armenians, 466-67, 470, 476, 488, 493
· artificial insemination experiments, 271, 272
· Aryan physics, 490
· Atlantis, 279n
·  Auschwitz, 3-8, 13, 14, 18, 143; adaptation to, 194-203; as annihilation camp, 157-62; bordello at, 270-71, 288; as concentration camp, 152-55; doubling and,210-13; evacuation of, 325; 14f13 at, 139; ideology of, 203-7; as institution, 425-26; medical experiments at, 26, 269-70, 291-95 (see also Block 10; Hygienic Institute); noma office at, 296-97; phenol injections at, 254-68; political department of, 149; prisoner doctors at, see Prisoner doctors; selections at, 136, 163-2; as work camp, 155-57; see also SS doctors; specific doctors
·  Auschwitz Museum, 248, 359
·   Aussenkommandos, 305
·  authoritarian personality, 498, 538 n136
·  Aztecs, 484, 485

B

· Bach-Zelewski, General Erich von dem, 159, 437n
· Baer, Richard, 398, 403
· Baeyer, Walter Ritter von, 113n, 122 
· Balkan war, 470
· Ball, Hugo, 476
· Barrett, William, 494n, 500
· Basch, Michael Franz, 422n, 498n, 502
· Bauer, Erich, 142
· Bauer, Yehuda, 160n, 518n32
· Bavarian Interior Ministry, 98
· Bayer Pharmaceutical Company, 291
· Bayle, François, 116
· BBC, 115, 207, 390
· Becker, Ernest, 467n
· Beckmann, Max, 469, 472
· Beger, Bruno, 286
· Belzec, 78, 79, 143, 157
· Bendorf mental hospital, 77
· Benn, Gottfried, 438
· Berlin, Isaiah, 471
· Berlin-Buch mental institution, 77
· Berlin-Dahlem Institute of Racial Biology, 349, 357, 360, 361, 369
· Berlin University, 30, 37, 81, 120, 121; Women’s Clinic at, 26
· Bernburg killing center, 71, 98
· Berner, Dr., 100n
· Best, Werner, 153, 473
· Bethel Institution, 90, 122
· Beyond Psychology (Rank), 13
· Bible, 488 
· Billinger, Richard, 483n
· Binding, Karl, 46-48, 58, 104
· biological renewal, ideology of, 437-38
· Birkenau, 156, 188, 252, 270, 272, 273, 299, 492; Clauberg at, 271; crematoria at, 171; Marie L. at, 298; Mengele at, 349, 353; Schumann at, 280, 281; selections at, 147; surgical demonstrations at 294; women’s hospital at, 190
· Black Death, 477
· Blake, William, 494n
· blaming the victim, 235, 244, 360-61; by Ernst B., 323, 333; genocide and, 476-78; by Mengele, 361, 373
· Bleichröder, Gerson von, 482
· Block 10, 270-87; anthropological research in 284-87 castration experiments in, 278-84; collaborators in, 248, 251 Ernst B in 303, 326 Hygienic Institute and, 287-91; Mengele in, 363; prisoner doctors in, 218, 237-38; resistance in, 297; sterilization experiments in, 277-78; Wirths and, 291, 387, 389, 405
· Blome, Kurt, 452
· Bodelschwingh, Fritz von, 90-91, 93, 115, 122n
· Bodman, Franz von, 261-62
· Boeckh, Rudolph, 88
· Bölsche, Wilhelm, 125
· Bolsheviks, 275
· bomber pilots, 494-95
· Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 81
· Bonhoeffer, Karl, 26, 37n, 81-82, 86n, 87, 120, 121, 456
· Bormann, Martin, 22, 27, 89, 94
· Bostroem, August, 88
· Bouhler, Philip, 51, 62n, 63, 64, 130, 135
· Boys from Brazil, The (Levin), 338
· Brack, Viktor, 108, 130; and carbon monoxide gassing, 79; and 14f13 project, 139; Himmler and, 278-80; and lethal injections, 71; and T4 project, 141n, 143
· Brandenburg killing center, 71, 73, 77, 123-24
· Brandt, Karl, 35, 52n, 63-64, 114-17, 130, 404; Bodelschwingh and, 91, 115; and carbon monoxide gassing, 72, 74; film project suggested by, 49; Hitler and, 50, 51, 72, 114, 116, 117; and T4 project, 95
· Brandt, Rudolf, 275
· Braune, Paul-Gerhard, 90-93, 95, 512n45
· Breitweiser (SS officer) 160n
· Breuer, Josef, 419n
· Brewda, Alma, 281
· British Colonial Medical Service, 248
· Broken Connection, The (Lifton), 440n
· Brown, Norman O., 483n
· Buber, Martin, 14, 381
· Buchenwald, 88; 14f13 program at,141; Hygienic Institute at, 300; lethal injections at 154, 256
· Bujalski, Dr., 262n
· Bumke Oswald 26
· Buna, 251
· Burchenschaften, 127-28
· bureaucracy, genocidal, 495-97


· Caesar, Joachim, 308n
· Canetti, Elias, 499  
· Capesius, Viktor, 260, 290
· capos (prisoner functionaries), 176, 181, 201, 215; killing of, 223, 241, prisoner doctors and, 214, 231, 247   
· carbon monoxide gassing, 71-72, 78-79, 143, 157, 159, 160, 453, 493
· Carnegie Institution, 23
· castration experiments, 269, 278-84
· Catel, Werner, 51, 52n
· Catholics, 29, 32, 93n; “euthanasia” program opposed by, 56, 93-95
· Chamberlain, Houston Stuart, 127
· Charité Hospital, 37, 81, 120-22
· Charlemagne, 471
· Charny,. Israel W., 467n
· Chelmno extermination camp, 79,157, 160
· children: forced labor by, 187; impaired, killing of, 21, 46, 49-62, 72, 96-97, 115, 119 -20, 140, 256; Mengele and, 185-86, 321-22, 345, 346, 371, 375, 424; noma in, 297; phenol injections of, 255, 264, 267; prisoner doctors and, 227, 238; “racially valuable,” 43; in selections, 147, 149; in twin research, 348, 352, 353, 355
· Children’s Specialty Departments, 53
· Cholm Insane Asylum, 78
· City of Mothers, 43, 277
· Clauberg, Carl, 42-43, 269-78, 297, 363, 462;
· Dering and, 248; Ernst B. and, 287, 288; Himmler and, 172, 274-77, 280; personal history of, 273-74; at Ravensbrück, 289; Samuel and, 251; sterilization by injection by, 271-73, 275-77; ·
· Wirths and, 238
· Cohen, Eli, 223-25
· Cohen, Simon, 305-7, 318, 328n, 332, 336
· collaborators, prisoner doctors as, 239-53, 496
· Common Welfare Ambulance Service Ltd., 70
· Common Welfare Foundation for Institutional
· Care, 70n
· Communists, 240-41, 243, 438; in Auschwitz resistance network, 223n, 388; at Dachau, 152; Freikorps and, 126; shot by Einsatzgruppen, 78; T4 psychiatrists and, 136
· Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, 538n127
· Concentration Camp Inspectorate, 135,137
· Condolence-Letter Department, 70
· Confessional Church, 90
· Conti, Leonardo, 35, 121, 452; Ewald and, 83, 85n, 86; Hitler and, 62, 63; Johann S. and, 130, 132; and lethal injections, 71
· corporal punishment, 149, 155
· Correns, Carl, 31
· corruption, 153, 170, 200-201, 387; blaming the victim for, 461; Ernst B. on, 316; Grabner arrested for, 310n; of Mengele, 372; Morgen’s investigation of, 138-39, 387; of researchers, 275; of Wirths, 413
· crematoria, 18, 148, 149, 164, 166, 170-71, 177-79, 257, 493 in extermination camps, 79; Sonderkommando and, 170, 367, 403; technical efficiency of, 454, 455; in T4 killing centers, 71, 75
· Creutzfeldt, Hans Gerhard, 82, 87, 119
· criminals, 156; killing of prisoners by, 224; medical blocks controlled by, 154, 187; Wirths and, 388
· Crinis, Max de, 63n, 64, 65, 81, 120-21
Czech family camp, 184-85, 232-33

D

· Dachau, 118, 152-53, 215, 241, 304, 461; Delmotte at, 311; Ernst B. at, 325-26; 14f13 at, 136, 138, 139; medical blocks at, 154; Mengele at, 380; Wirths at, 86, 406; as work camp, 155
· Dadrian, Vahakn N., 470
· Darré, Richard-Walter, 279
· Darwinism, 16-17, 125, 131, 441
· Daudet, Alphonse, 420
· Davenport, Charles B., 23, 38
· death anxiety: fascist ideology and, 499; warding off, 448-49
· death certificates, falsification of, 74-75, 100, 149, 187, 216
· Death’s Head Units, 153
· DEGESCH, 161
· De Jarnette, Joseph S., 24n
· Delmotte, Hans, 318, 326, 328n, 446; selection process and, 208, 309-11, 378, 436-37, 463
· denial, 161n, 496; and euphemisms for killing, 202; and phenol injections, 259n
· dentists, selections performed by, 174, 176, 197-98
· Deputy, The (Hochhuth), 162n, 338
· derealization,200, 442, 496
· Dering, Wladislaw, 246-50, 252-53, 281, 283, 297; doubling by, 425; Entress and, 262; libel trial of, 246, 248-49
· Desinfektoren, 148, 160, 174, 215, 446; in “euthanasia” program, 110; Zyklon B and, 161
· diphtheria, 296
· dissociation, 419
· Doctor Faustus (Mann), 435n
· Dohnanyi, Hans von, 37n, 86n.
· Dörner, Klaus, 103
· Dostoevski, Feodor, 429
· Double, The (Dostoevski), 429
· doubling, 151, 418-65, 498; broader danger of, 464-65; collaboration and, 246; construction of meaning and, 458-63; by de Crinis, 121; “disembodied self” and, 500; evil and, 423-24; genocide and, 465, 466; German culture and, 428-29; by Gerstein, 162n; by half-educated men, 493; healing-killing paradox and, 430-33; ideology and, 434-42; institutions and, 425; by Mengele, 374-78; by Mennecke, 141; Nazi, 426-27; numbing and, 442-47; omnipotence and impotence in, 447-51; professional identity and, 451-58; selections and, 210-13; splitting and, 422-23; universal potential for, 503; varieties of, 424-25; by Wirths, 413-14 .
· Douglas, Mary, 482
· drinking by doctors, 193-6, 199, 231, 312-13, 317; numbing and, 443-44
· Durrenmatt, Friedrich, 418
· dwarfs, Mengele’s research on, 348, 349, 360, 364
· Dycke, Henry V., 420

Index
E —  G  
E   G
· Eberl, Irmfried, 71, 73, 123-24, 143
· Ebner, Gregor, 43
· Eglfing-Haar mental hospital, 76, 77, 98, 99
· Ehrhardt, Helmut, 513n 1
· Ehrlich, Paul, 439n
· Eichberg mental hospital, 140
· Eichhorn, August, 233-34
· Eichmann, Adolf, 12, 78, 158-60, 162, 175, 338, 480, 498
· Eicke, Theodor, 118, 152 -53, 154n, 155
· Einsatzgruppen, 143, 436, 437n, 451, 492; hospital patients shot by, 78; psychological reactions of, 15, 159, 268, 454
· Eiseley, Loren, 430, 458, 463, 504
· Elders of Zion, 480
· electroshock therapy, research on, 298-99
· Eliade, Mircea, 463, 486
· Elser, Georg, 118n
· embodied self, 499-500
· empathy, blocks to, 210
· Endlösung, see Final Solution
· Entress, Friedrich, 211, 236, 261-63; Dering and, 246; Klehr and, 265, 267; and lethal injections, 254, 256, 261, 262, 387; Polish prisoners and, 206, 263; selections by, ,189-91, 262, 395
· Epstein, Berthold, 296-97, 360-61, 368
· Erbarzt, Der (Journal), 340
· Erikson, Erik, 479, 501
· Eta, 482
· “Eternal Doctors” (book series), 32
·  ethos of killing, 435-37
· eugenics, 16-17, 22-24, 31; and killing of children, 97; positive, 42, 43; in United States, 22-23
· “euthanasia” program, 42, 45-79, 346, 442, 444, 451; academic opposition to, 39; in concentration camps, 154; denounced by von Galen, 39-40; Hitler’s involvement in, 50-51; impaired children in, 21, 46, 49-62; as medical obligation, 30; mentally ill in, 47-50, 57-59, 62-76; participants in, see specific doctors; phenol injections for, 254, 255; popular resistance to, 89-90; psychiatric resistance to, 80-89, 111; public opinion and, 48-50; religious resistance to, 90-95; Rudin and, 28; Schumann and, 278, 284; starvation in, 62; Wagner and, ; “wild,” 56, 96-102; see also 14f13 program; T4 program.
· Ewald, Gottfried, 66n, 82-87, 95, 109n, 122, 456, 457
· Ewers, Hanns Heinz, 421n “Existence without Life” (Dasein ohne Leben) (film), 76n
· Exodus (Uris), 248-49
· Expressionism, 469, 472
· eye color, Mengele’s research on, 361

F

· Face of the Germanic Doctor over Four Centuries, The, 31
· Falthauser, Valentin, 98
· Fejkiel, Wladyslaw, 186-87, 223, 255
· Fest, Joachim, 279, 452
· Final Solution, 77, 162n, 382, 445, 480; Auschwitz as technical center of, 425; Brack on, 280; Ernst B. on, 333, 459; 14f13 program and, 143, 148; psychological purpose of term, 206; Wannsee Conference on, 158; Weber on, 305; Zyklon-B and, 160n
· First World War, 99, 229n, 385, 434, 468-70, 476, 486, 487, 499; Clauberg in, 273, 278; Ernst B. in, 312, 313, 334; Heyde in, 117; Johann S. in, 126, 127, 133; Samuel in, 250, 251; Speer in, 474
· Fischer, Horst, 210-11, 213, 217, 227-29, 299, 397, 402
· Five Chimneys (Lengyel), 225
· Flagge, Wilhelm, 227
· Fleming, Gerald, 520n24
· forced labor, 155-57; death through, 188; medical blocks and, 186, 187; selections and, 174-75, 180
· Foreign Intelligence Service, 118n
· l4fl3program, 134-44, 148, 255, 454; and evolving genocidal mentality, 142-44; Heyde and, 119; Mennecke in, 139-42; shifts in focus of, 137-39
· Frank, Anne, 338
· Frank, Hans, 16
· Frank, Willi, 394
· Frankfurt, University of, 347-48
· Frankfurt Auschwitz Trial, 189, 258, 260, 266, 341, 342, 411
· Frankfurt Hadamar Trial, 515n 15
· Frankfurt Institute of Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene, 339, 340, 359
· Frederick the Great, 471
· Freiburg, University of, 46
· Freikorps, 120-21, 126-29, 133, 452
· French Revolution, 129
· Freud, Sigmund, 13, 168, 419, 421n, 440n, 467, 469, 477
· Frick, Wilhelm, 25
· Friediander, Henry, 513n81
· Friedmann, Sylvia, 272, 273
· Fritsch, Carl, 160
· Führer principle, 37, 451, 472, 484, 491
· fundamentalism, medical, 488-89

  · Galen, Clemens Count von, Bishop of Münster, 39, 93
· Galton, Francis, 24
· gas chambers, 18, 98, 100, 143, 148, 157, 216, 255, 257, 493; anthropological research and, 285; denial of, 203; dynamiting of, 321-22 and ethos of killing, 436; and Final Solution, 158; in 14f13 program, 138; gas chambers ideological argument for, 205; numbing and, 446n; selection for, see selections; Sonderkommandos and, 252; technical efficiency of, 455; technology of, 159-62; in T4 program, 71-74, 77, 78-79, 96, 105, 123; transport to, 431; at Treblinka, 124; victims of experiments sent to, 283, 287, 299; see also crematoria
· Gasman, Daniel, 441
· Gebhardt, Dr., 290
· Gemeinschaft (community), 478
· genetics 23 Rudin’s view of 27-29 see also eugenics
· genocide, 466-500; agents of, 489-93; blaming the victim in, 476-78; bureaucracy and, 495-97; doubling and, 465, 466; and Germany after First World War, 467-70 Gotterdammerung and, 485-86 medical fundamentalism and, 488-89; purification through, 481-85; and quest for transcendence, 473-76; self and, 497-500; technology of, 493-95; threshold in 479-81; universal potential for, 503; and vision of total cure, 470-73; see also Final Solution German
· Chamber of Medicine, 277
· German Communist Party (KPD) 136
· German Corporation for Pest Control, 161
· German Hostel Association , 91n
· German Psychiatric Society, 28n
· German Research Society, 341
· German Society for Racial Hygiene, 24, 28
· German War Graves Commission, 481
· Germany Must Perish! (Kaufman), 131
· Gerstein, Kurt, 161-62n, 413-14
· Gestapo, 39, 135, 153n, 404; Ahnenerbe and, 286; Braune arrested by, 93; Dering and, 246; Ernst B. on, 199; Heyde and, 118, 119; phenol injections ordered by,149; “special treatment” and, 136; Weber and, 290; Wirths and, 87, 402, 404
· ghettos, 144, 148, 205
· Gleichschaltung 33-35, 37, 38, 40, 45, 83n, 451, 452
· Gleiwtz, 266
· Glover, Edward, 419n
· Goebbels, Josef, 37, 94n, 128n 477, 490
· Goebel, Johannes, 272n, 277
· Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 428-29, 475, 478
· Görden psychiatric institution, 53-54
· Gorgass, Hans, 141, 515n 15
· Göring, Hermann, 85-86, 91, 158, 279n, 472, 480
· Goring, Matthias, 83, 85n 86, 87n, 91
· Göring Institute, 83n
· Götterdämmerung, 485-86
· Gottfried, Robert S., 478
· Göttingen State Hospital, 85
· Gotz Dr., 88
· Grabner, Maximilian, 261, 310n, 389, 402, 404
· Grafeneck killing center, 71, 143, 147, 278, 284
· Grawitz, Ernst Robert von, 31, 32, 64; Bach-Zelewski and, 159, 437n; Clauberg and, 274; gas chambers advocated by, 143, 453; Heyde and, 118; selection policy laid down by, 173, 175
· Gray, Ronald, 428n
· Grese, Irma, 227, 387
· Grillparzer, Franz, 389
· Gross, Walter, 511n 13
· Gross-Rosen, 261
· Grotstein, James S., 424n “group think,” 496
· Guett, Arthur 32
· Günther, Hans F. K., 28, 365
· Gürtner, Franz, 89, 91
· Gypsies, 147, 153; blaming of, 460; Ernst B. and, 323-24; 14f13 program and, 139; gassing of, 79; Jewish prisoner doctors and, 241; killed by Einsatzgruppen, 78; killing of entire camp of, 185-86; Mengele and, 348, 350, 351, 353, 357n, 361-62, 366, 375, 379; noma among, 297; phenol injections of, 255; starvation of, 199; sterilization of, 283




Index
H — K
H   I
· Hadamar killing center, 71, 73-75, 100, 143, 515n 15
· Haeckel, Ernst, 125, 441
· Hamburger, Franz, 40
· Hantl, Emil, 267-68
· “hardness,” idea of, 533n41
· Harrel, Isser, 338
· Harriman, Mary, 23
· Hartheim killing center, 71, 75, 98, 123n, 138, 139, 142, 147
· Harvard. University, 38n
· Hautval, Adelaide, 270
· healers (Heilkundiger), 40, 41
· healing-killing paradox, 430-33; collaboration and, 246; epidemic prevention and, 202; Himmler and, 279; Hygienic Institute and, 291; medical-block selections and, 186; prisoner doctors and, 216, 219, 235-36; professional identity and, 451-58; selections and, 149-50; Wirths and, 384, 389, 395, 404-5, 411-12
· healing practitioners (Heilpraktiker), 40-41
· Hefelmann, Hans, 50n, 52, 53n
· Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 428n
· Heidegger, Martin, 37, 438
· Heidelberg, University of, 38, 45; Clinic of, 122
· Heine, Heinrich, 428
· Heinze, Hans, 52-53n, 54, 64
· Heissmeyer, Kurt, 457n
· Hennicke, Karl, 523n24
· Hereditary Health Courts, 25, 29
· Herf, Jeffrey, 494n
· Hermann Göring Works, 156
· Hess, Rudolf, 31, 40, 129, 484
· heterochromia, 361-62
· Heyde, Werner, 64, 67, 70, 117-20, 135, 153, 457, 490; and carbon monoxide gassing, 71, 72; Eberl and, 123; Ewald and, 82, 83, 85n, 86, 87; Horst D. and, 103, 104, 106; Mennecke and, 140, 141 and T4 program, 137; Wolfgang R. and, 108
· Heydrich, Reinhard, 9, 78, 136, 158, 278, 304, 480
· Hilberg, Raul, 143, 158, 171, 446, 518n32, 520n38
· Himmler, Heinrich, 89, 90, 147, 106n, 207, 291, 426, 469, 477, 492; Ahnenerbe office created by, 279n, 286; attempt on Speer’s life by, 115n; Bach-Zelewski and, 159; biomedical vision of, 16-17; Brack and, 278-80; Caesar and, 308n; camp bordellos ordered by, 270; Clauberg and, 271, 274-77, 280; concentration camps established by, 152; de Crinis and, 121; Eicke and, 153; on ethos of killing, 435-37; and 14f13 program, 135, 136; Grawitz and, 143, 453; on Hippocrates, 32; Hirt and, 285-87; Höss and, 157-58, 480; interest in liver disease, 294; Johann S. on, 130-32; Lebensborn and, 43; Mengele and, 341n, 375; Samuel and, 251; selections policy and, 173, 174; and T4 program, 95, 135
· Himmler, Margarete, 279
· Hinselmann, Hans, 385, 391, 405
· Hippocrates, 32
· Hippocratic oath, 207, 433, 500; experiments and, 4; medicalized killing and, 16; Nazi view of, 32; Wirths and, 411
· Hirsch, Dr., 116
· Hitler, Adolf, 16, 17, 22, 28, 36, 86, 136, 157, 279n, 314, 338, 476, 479, 490, 532n32; as agent of transcendence, 474; blaming the victim by, 460, 477; Brandt and, 51, 72, 95, 114-16; Braune and, 91, 93; and carbon monoxide gassing, 71, 72; on “cleansing” of medical profession, 483; de Crinis and, 120, 121; educators’ vow to support, 37; Ernst B. on, 317, 324, 330; and “euthanasia” program, 56, 59, 62-64, 95, 120; and first medical killing, 50-51; in First World War, 469–70; and 14f13 program, 139; Gleischaltung principle of, 33; insane logic of, 439; Johann S. on, 131–33; Mengele and, 339, 365, 377; Mölders and, 95; Nuremberg rally, 507n 14; paranoia of, 440; Polish attitude toward, 242; SS oath of loyalty to, 207, 433, 435; and sterilization program, 24, 27; suicide of, 453, 487; vision of total cure, of, 471, 473; Wagner and, 35, 50, 129; Wehrmacht and, 107; White Rose and, 39; Wirths and, 403; Wolfgang R. on, 109
· Hitler Youth, 38, 58
· Hoche, Alfred, 45-48, 58, 104, 107, 113n, 117
· Hochhuth Rolf, 162n 338, 345, 380, 426, 490
· Hodys, E1eonore, 201n
· Hoffman Gerhard 44n
· Hoffmann E. T. A., 421n
· Hoffnungstal Institution, 90
· Hölderlin, Friedrich 428
· Holocaust (TV film) 381, 528n59
· Home Mission, 90
· homosexuality, 153; Jewish doctors and, 42 Mengele and, 372
· Horla, Le (Maupassant) 429
· Horst Wessel song 128
· Höss Rudolf, 156, 201, 211n, 256, 310, 446n, 455, 459, 461; Clauberg and 238, 272, 276; at Dachau 153; Eichmann and, 159-60; on Einsatzkommandos, 159; Ernst B on 323-25, 328; Himmler and, 157-58, 480; and selections policy, 173, 425 Wirths and 175, 386, 388, 392, 393, 401, 404, 411; and Zyklon-B, 160, 162
· Hoven Waldemar, 256
· Hufeland, Christoph Wilhelm, 32
· human sacrifice, 481-85
· Hungerhäuser (starvation houses), 98
· Hunter, Richard H., 440n
· hydrogen cyanide, see Zyklon-B
· Hygienic Institute, 31, 300; Ernst B.at, 304-6, 308-10, 316, 325-27; experiments conducted at, 270, 287-91, 296; official concerns of, 172; and phenol injections, 256, 258; prisoner doctors and, 215, 217, 229, 237, 296, 325; selections and, 308, 309, 394; Zyklon-B distributed by, 161
  · “I Accuse” 148; (Ich Klage an) (film), 49
· I. G. Farben, Inc., 18, 148, 152, 156, 184, 187, 188, 215, 291
· impotence, feelings of, 447-51
· “Inheritance, The” 148; (Das Erbe) (film), 48
· International Committee of the Red Cross, 299
· International Tracing Service, 299
· Israeli Secret Police, 338

J

· Jäckel. Eberhard 477n
· Jaensch, Erik 491
· Jagerstab, 156
· James, Henry, 420
· James, William, 413, 420, 482n
· Janet Pierre, 419, 422-23
· Janis, Irving 496
· Jasperson, Karsten 88-89, 90
· Jehovah's Witnesses 138, 153
· Jewish doctors persecution of, 35-7 propaganda against 41, 453 see also prisoner doctors
· Jews, 4-6 16, 17; abortions performed on, 149; as agents of contamination, 448n, “anthropological” 148; research on, 270, 285, 426; articulation of policy of extermination of, 157-58; assigned to dispose of corpses, see Sonderkommandos; Bach-Zelewski and, 47n; blaming of, 460-61; in Block 10, 270, 282, 283; camp identification system for, 153; Entress and, 263; Ernst B. and, 305-6, 321, 324, 329, 330, 332-33; euphemism for killing of, 445; in “euthanasia” 148; program, 56, 62,124; Ewald and, 85; excluded from Hippocratic oath, 433; 14f13 program and, 135-39, 141; genocide and, 466, 476-84, 486-88, 492-94, 496, 497 (see also Final Solution); in ghettos, 144, 148; Johann S. and, 127, 131; killed by Einsatzgruppen, 159; as majority of Auschwitz inmates, 156; medical experiments on, 293, 301; Mengele and, 321, 324, 325, 343, 346, 355, 360-370, 377-78, 382; and Nazi ethos of killing, 435-36; numbing and attitude toward, 442; Nuremberg Laws and, 25, 28; phenol injections of, 255-57; in pogroms, 14; prisoner doctors and, 11, 241; psychology of, 490, 491; psychotherapy and, 121 ; as race, 23n; removal of gold fillings from teeth of, 3; Rohde and, 230-31; 147; “special treatment” 148; and, 151; sterilization of, 26, 278, 280; systematic selections of, see selections; technicization of killing of, 454; T4 program and, 76-79; Wagner and, 129; Wirths and, 386, 393, 401, 403, 412; Wolfgang R. and, 108; working to death of, 155; Zyklon-B and, 161, 162; see also anti-Semitism
· Johst, Hans, 472
· Jones, Jim, 330
· Jonestown mass suicide-murder, 330, 439
· Jost, Adolf, 46
· Journal of the American Medical Association, 24n
· Judenrat organizations, 496
· Jung, Carl G., 467n, 486
· Jungdeutscher Orden, 312
· Jünger, Ernst, 127-28, 466, 494n
· juvenile delinquents, killing of, 56

K

· Kaiser Wilhelm Society, Research Institute for Psychiatry of, 28
· Kanner, Leo, 510n1
· Kant, Immanuel, 478
· Kapp Putsch, 117
· Kaschub, Emil, 293
· Kater, Michael, 34n
· Kaufbeuren Asylum, 98
· Kaufman, Theodore N., 131
· Keitel, Wilhelm, 158
· Kennedy, Foster, 38, 45, 510n1
· Keveles, Daniel J, 24n
· Kiel, University of, 273
· Kierkegaard, Søren, 467
· Klee, Ernst, 83n, 142, 513n81
· Klehr, Josef, 189, 259, 260, 264-68, 278, 387, 495
· Klein, Fritz, 15-16, 212; prisoner doctors and, 203, 206, 211, 223, 226-29, 231-32, 234
· Klein, Melanie, 419n
· Kleist, Heinrich von, 428
· Kleist, Karl, 9, 87n
· Klodzinski, Stanislaw, 255n, 258-60, 281, 283
· Knauer infant, 516n9
· Kogon, Eugen, 154, 456
· Koibenheyer, Erwin Guido, 483n
· König, Hans Wilhelm, 206, 207, 209, 210, 232-33, 295, 299-300
· Koran, 488
· Korn, Miklulas, 265
· KPD (German Communist Party), 136
· Kraepelin, Emil, 27
· Kremer, Johann Paul, 147, 179, 292-92, 398
· Kren, George, 467n
· Kressier, Hans, 516n9
· Kretschmer, Ernst, 87n
· Kristallnacht, 108, 153
· Krupp, 156
· Kuhn, Arthur, 83n, 87
· Kulka, Erich, 160n
· Kulmhof, see Chelmno







     

Index
L — N

L

· Lagarde, Paul de, 468, 478
· Lammers, Hans, 62, 91n, 93
· Landau, Dr., 264
· Landman,J. P., 23n
· Lang, Theo, 87n
· Langbein, Hermann, 138n, 264, 297n, 308n, 310n, 452; on Entress, 261, 263; on Samuel, 252; on selections, 194; Verschuer and, 362; on Weber, 289n; Wirths and, 257, 384-91, 393-95, 404, 405, 408-9, 411, 414
· Langer, Suzanne, 463
· language: deamplification of, 495-96; numbing and, 445-46
· Laughlin, Harry H., 38
· Lebensborn (“Spring of Life”), 43
· lebensunwertes Leben, see “life unworthy of life”
· Ledebur, Count von, 517n38
· Lehmann, J. F., 46n
· Leipzig, University of, 46, 51
· Lemkin, Raphael, 466
· Lengyel, Olga, 225; on Klein, 211, 226-27; on Mengele, 342, 344, 345, 364, 372, 373
· Lenz, Fritz, 23, 24, 340, 475
· lesbianism, 372
· lethal injections, 493; at Buchenwald, 154; by Mengele, 341, 350-51; in T4 program, 71, 78; “wild euthanasia” and 97, 100-102 see also phenol injections
· Levy, Robert, 189
· Lichtenberg, Bernard, 94n
· Liebehenschel, Arthur, 310, 398 “life unworthy of life,” 21, 25, 46, 48, 62, 65, 76, 120
· Lill, Karl, 388, 408-9
· Linden, Herbert, 53n, 64, 67
· Lingens-Reiner, Ella, 15-16, 231-32
· Lolling, Enno, 172, 452; Ernst B. on, 198; Mengele and, 369; and selections policy, 180, 188, 254; Wanda J. and, 217; Wirths and, 386, 407
· Lonauer, Rudolf, 123n, 142
· London Times, 38n
· Lorenz, Konrad, 134, 334, 483
· Löwis, Else von, 89
· Lucas, Franz, 194-95, 198, 343, 394
· Luftwaffe, 94, 280
· Luther, Martin, 428n, 479

M

· Macalpine, Ida, 440n
· McClelland, David C., 538n 136
· Madagascar Plan, 76, 144, 158, 206, 439
· Mafia, 423
· Magnussen, Dr., 361
· Maistre, Joseph de, 485
· Majdanek, 157, 519n 4
· Mann, Ernst, 44
· Mann, Thomas, 418, 428, 435n, 466, 469
· Markle (administrator of Hadamar), 100n
· Marlowe, Christopher, 429
· Matussek, Paul, 7
· Maupassant, Guy de, 429
· Mauthausen, 137, 139, 142, 388; medical experiments at, 291
· Max Planck Institute for Research in Psychopathology and Psychotherapy, 7
· meaning, construction of, 458-63
· medical experiments, 151, 154, 172, 269-302, 393n; construction of meaning in, 462; Klehr’s involvement in, 265; by Mengele, 321, 360-69 (see also twins); prisoner doctors and 218, 237-38; 246-49, 251, 291, 295-301; by Wirths, 391-92, 400, 405 see also Block 10; Hygienic Institute
· medicalized killing, 14-18, 44; at Auschwitz, 202, 254-68; collective process of, 213; in concentration camps, 134, 136. 138; postwar German medical profession and, 457; Wirths and, 394, 395; see also “euthanasia” program; phenol injections
· medical witness, 300-301
· Meinecke, Friedrich, 469
· Mein Kampf (Hitler), 16, 33-34, 477n, 480, 488
· Mendel, Gregor, 23
· Mengele, Josef, 6, 151, 213, 232-33, 303, 337-83, 404, 412, 431, 432, 449, 458, 461-62, 475; background of, 338-42; as Catholic, 339; death of, 382; Delmotte and, 310, 437; doubling by, 374-78, 424; dwarfs and, 360; Ernst B. and, 173, 308, 321-25, 329, 336, 369, 459; eye color research by, 361-62; methods and goals of, 357-60; mythic aura of, 379-82; narcissism of, 421 ; noma research and, 296-97, 360-61, 460; phenol injections given by, 255, 258, 261, 262, 347, 493; prisoner doctors and, 221, 235, 241, 296-98, 369-74; scientific attitudes of, 365-69; selections by, 163, 165, 173-74, 182, 183 , 185-86, 194-95, 198, 202, 210, 342-47, 394; self-realization at Auschwitz of, 378-79; twin experiments by,169, 269, 295-96, 347-56
 
M (cont)

· Mennecke, Friedrich, 64, 74n, 95n, 135n, 139-43, 517n
·mental patients: killing of, see “euthanasia” program; phenol injections in, 254, 255; prisoner doctors and, 224, 264; research, on, 299; sterilization of, 23, 25-27
· “mercy killing,” see “euthanasia” program
· Meseritz-Obrawalde killing center, 78
· Meusberger, Dr., 83n
· Middle Ages, 477
· Mielke, Fred, 475n
· Mill, John Stuart, 35n
· Mission and Conscience (Unger), 49
· Mitscherlich, Alexander, 43, 442n, 447n, 457
· Mitscherlich, Margarete, 442n
· Möckel, Dr. 56
· Mölders, Warner, 94-95
· Monowitz, 156, 187, 188, 217, 227
· More, Thomas, 312
· Morell, Theodor, 114, 132
· Morganroth, Julius, 49
· Morgen, Konrad, 138-39, 193n, 387
· Morris, Desmond, 334
· Mosse, George L., 23n
· Mrugowsky, Joachim, 31-33, 161, 256, 290, 291, 304, 305, 308-10
· Müller, Dr., 140
· Müller, Filip, 403n
· multiple personality, 422, 423
· Munich, University of, 39; Anthropological Institute of, 339
· Munich Prosecutor’s Office, 154n
· Münster, University of, 292
· Muselmänner, 138,150, 189, 199, 217, 425; phenol injections in, 261 selections of, 180

N

· National Health Service, 248
· nationalism, 470-71; romantic, 475
· National Liberals, 35n, 125
· National Socialist German Physicians’ League (Nationalsözialistischer Deutscher Aztebund), 34, 35, 114, 129
· National Socialist Student League, 38
· “nature’s engine,” metaphor of, 450-51
· Natzweiler, 285
· Nazi Chamber of Literature, 427
· Nazi Girls League, 41
· Nazi League of University Instructors, 38
· negative selection, 91
· Neuendettelsauer Nursing Homes, 67
· Neuengamme, 386, 457n
· Neumann, Margita, 273
· newborns, killing of, 224-25
· Newtonian physics, 475
· Nietzsche, Friedrich, 46n, 407-8, 428, 486
· Nitsche, Paul, 64, 67, 73, 118, 135n; Horst D. on, 104; and lethal injections, 100; Mennecke and, 141, 142; and T4 program, 137
· Nkrùmah, Kwame, 284
· Nobel Prize, 40
· noma, 296-97, 460; Mengele’s research on, 360-61
· nuclear weapons: doubling and, 464-6; genocide and, 503-4; technicism and, 495
· numbing, 141, 161n, 419, 420, 442-47, 498; group, 443-45; of half- educated men, 493; of Kremer, 293; language and, 445-46; of Mengele, 376-77; of phenol injectors, 267-268 of prisoners, 164.-67; selections and, 200; and “separate reality,” 446-47
· Nuremberg Laws, 25, 30, 36, 130
· Nuremberg Medical Trial, 9, 18, 32, 51, 72, 116, 135n, 269, 280n, 283, 290n, 338, 453, 458
· Nyiszli, Miklos, 257, 350-51, 358-64, 366-68, 370, 378, 458


 Index
O — R
O

· omnipotence, feelings of, 447-51
· Ontl, Friedrich, 252
· Operation Invalid, 135
· Ottilien Home, 90
P

· Panszczyk, Mieczyslaw, 264
· Paracelsus, 31, 471, 481, 483
· Parkinson, C. Northcote, 178n
· Party Chancellery Court, 89
· Perl, Gisella, 345, 365
· “Permission to Destroy Life Unworthy of Life The” (Die Freigabe der Ver nichtung lebensunwerten Leben (Binding and Hoche) 46
· Pfannmüller, Hermann, 61-64, 67, 76, 77, 98, 99, 119-20, 495
· pharmacists, selections performed by, 174, 176, 197
· pharmacological testing 291
· phenol injections 149, 189-90 216, 254-68; by doctors, 262-63; in Hygienic Institute 291; in Kremer’s research, 292; by Mengele 347, 493 by nonphysicians 264-68 prisoner doctors and 237, 246, 254, 257-58, 262, 264-65
· Physicians’ Commissions, 67
· Physicians’ Law (1935), 42
· Picture of Dorian Gray (Wilde), 429
· Ploetz, Alfred, 24, 28, 46n
· Poe, Edgar Allan, 429
· Pohl, Oswald, 155
· Pokorny, Adolf, 275
· Polish prisoners,147; “anthropological” research on, 285; anti-Semitism of, 11, 239-50, 264; castration experiments on, 283; Entress and, 206, 262-63; 14f13 program and, 139; Mengele and, 379; murders of, 310n; phenol injections given by, 264; torturing of, 290; “wild euthanasia” and, 101, 136; Wirths and, 387, 404; working to death of, 155
· political prisoners, 156, 215; at Dachau, 152; medical blocks controlled by, 154, 187, 240-41, 243; phenol injections in, 255, 256, 265; phenol injections given by, 264; prisoner doctors and, 223; see also Communists
· Politics of Cultural Despair, The (Stern), 467-68
· pregnant women: gassing of, 183, 212, 224; Mengele and, 372, 373; non-Jewish, release from camp of, 207, 209
· prisoner doctors, 151, 187, 201, 214-53, 504; abortions performed by, 183, 224-25; blaming of 460, 461; as collaborators, 239-53; Delmotte and, 311; direct killing by 223-25; doubling by, 425; on doubling of SS doctors, 210-13; Entress and, 206; Ernst B. and, 287, 288, 306-8, 315-18, 319n, 320, 326-27; as healers, 236-38; Hygienic Institute and, 288, 289, 305; and medical “as if” situation, 234-36; and medical experiments 291, 295-301; Mengele and, 341, 342, 344-48 351, 359, 369-74, 380; moral dilemma of, 221-25; numbing of, 443; phenol injections and, 246, 254, 257-58, 262, 264 -65; privileges of 214-26; recruiting of, 217-18; relationships of SS doctors with 203, 209 226-34; Schumann and, 281; selections and, 167-69, 175, 181-83, 186, 190-92, 194, 195, 209, 218-23, 228-29, 234, 236-38; surgical demonstrations by, 294; Wirths and, 86-87, 389-91; women, 230-34; work function and, 157; see also specific doctors
· prostitutes, 270-71, 288
· Protestants, “euthanasia” opposed by, 56, 88, 90
· prussic acid, see Zyklon-B
· pseudospeciation, 502
· psychiatry: at Auschwitz, 227-28; participation in “euthanasia” program, 110-14; political manipulation of, 136; resistance to medical killing in, 80-89, 111; see also specific doctors
· psychic numbing, see numbing
· psychoanalysis, 42
· Public Health Office, 30
· Pursuit Planes Staff, 156
 
Q

· Quakers, 498
R

· racial ideology, 17; academic opposition to, 39; anthropological research and, 284-87; of Clauberg, 274; doubling and, 434-42; eugenics and, 23-24; “euthanasia” program and, 46; of Himmler, 279; Jewish doctors and, 35; of Mengele, 377-78; and participation in selections, 203-7; sickness metaphor of, 16; of Wirths, 412; see also anti-Semitism
· Ramm, Rudolf, 30, 32-33
· Rank, Otto, 13, 14, 420-21, 428, 467
· Rascher, Sigmund, 286
· Ratka, Victor, 142
· Ravensbrü ck: 14f13 at, 136, 138-40, 274, 277; Mengele at, 380
· reactionary modernism, 494
· Redlich, F. C., 132n, 517n47
· Reflections on Violence (Sorel), 435n
· Reiber, Robert W., 423n
· Reich, Wilhelm, 467n
· Reich Central Security Department, see RSHA
· Reich Chancellery, 103-4, 108; Braune’s protest to, 91; and “euthanasia” program, 51, 52, 62, 64, 71, 96; and 14f13 program, 137, 139
· Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Serious Hereditary and Congenital Diseases, 52-56, 61, 97n
· Reich Committee Institutions, 53
· Reich Education Ministry, 37, 38, 121
· Reich Health Ministry, 52, 55, 64, 65
· Reich Interior Ministry, 3, 52, 66, 77, 96
· Reich Main Security Office, 304
· Reich Ministry of Justice, 81
· Reich Physicians' Chamber (Reichsarztekammer), 34, 35
· Reich Propaganda Ministry, 94n
· Reich Security, 175
· Reichstag, 125
· Reichstag fire, 152
· Reich Work Group of Sanatoriums and Nursing Homes, 65
· religious resistance to “euthanasia” program, 88-95
· Renno, Georg, 142
· resistance: anti-Semitism and, 242; in Auschwitz, 223, 238, 390, 404; by prisoner doctors, 297-98; silent, 513n1 ; by university students, 39
· Rohde, Werner, 210-11, 229-31, 234, 238, 290, 463
· Riefenstahl, Leni, 507n14
· “Right to Death, The” (Das Recht auf den Tod) (Jost), 46
· ritual reversals, 432-33
· Roethke, Theodore, 466
· routine, meaning derived from, 458-63
· Royal Air Force, 94
· RSHA (Reichssicherheitshauptamt) 155-56, 158
· Rudin, Ernst, 27-29, 88
· Russian prisoners, 147; 14f13 and, 139; gassing of, 160; “wild euthanasia” and, 101; see also Soviet POW’s
· Rust, Bernhard, 37, 82n

 Index
S — T
S

· SA, 34, 38, 85, 128-29, 133, 278, 339, 385
· Sachsenhausen, 139, 140
· Saller, Karl, 39
· Samuel, Maximilian, 250-53, 297, 298, 391, 425
· Sanitä tsdienstgrade, see SDG
· Santayana, George, 488
· Sauerbruch, Ferdinand, 37, 91, 114
· Schellenberg, Walter, 118n, 121
· Schering-Kahlbaurn Pharmaceutical Company, 43, 272n
· Scherpe, Herbert, 267-68
· schizophrenia, splitting in, 423
· Schmidt, Gerhard, 77, 99, 120
· Schmidt, Walter, 97n
· Schnabel Ernst 338
· Schneider, Carl 64, 87n 121-23
· Schneider, Kurt 87n
· Scholem Gershom 501
· Scholl, Hans, 39
· Schuler Dr., 256, 286, 290
· Schultze, Walter, 48, 98, 511n13
· Schumann Horst 143, 208, 269, 270, 280-84, 363, 462; Dering and, 247, 248; Himmler and, 172; prisoner doctors and, 297, 298; X-ray sterilization experiments of, 276, 278, 280-83
· Schutzstafel, see SS
· Schwarzhuber, Johann, 184, 185
· Schweitzer, Albert, 114
· scientific racism, see racial ideology
· SD, 49, 90, 121
· SDG (Sanitatsdienstgrade), 210, 215, 232 and phenol injections 259, 260, 264, 266, 267, 347; prisoner doctors and, 222; selections and, 148, 189
· Searles, Harold F., 440n
· selections, 4, 17, 18, 147, 149-50; adaptation of doctors to role in, 194-97; camp, 180-86, 194; compliance of doctors in performing, 193-94; construction of meaning in, 459, 461-63; doubling and, 210-13, 425; Ernst B. and, 307-11, 315, 335; euphemism and, 445; 14f13 program and, 136, 138, 139; medical-block, 186-92, 262; medical rationale for, 455; by Mengele, 322, 325, 341-47, 373, 374; Nazi ideology and, 203-7; numbing and, 444; element of "performance" in, 461-62; performed by collaborators, 242-46; phenol injections and, 255, 256, 258-59, 265, 266; pressure to perform, 197-99; prisoner doctors and, 167-68, 175, 181-83, 186, 190-92, 194, 195, 209, 218-23, 228-29, 234, 236-38; professional arrangements for, 172-79; professional identity and, 452; psychological distance in, 199-203; research and, 296; resistance to performing, 195, 208-9; as rituals, 72 432-33; sequence of killing in, 169-72; special recognition for performing 207-8; victims experience of, 163-69; Wirths and 392-95, 397, 402n, 410, 411; work function and 156
· Seraphim Hans-Günther, 137
· Sex and Character (Weininger), 493n
· shamanism 481
· Siemens-Schuckert, 156
· silent resistance, 513n1
· slave labor, see forced labor
· Sobibór, 78, 79, 157
· social Darwinism, 16, 17, 24, 125
· Social Democrats, 8, 40, 152
· Socialist League of Doctors, 34
· Soldau transit camp, 78, 79
· Sonderkommando, 166, 169-71. 174, 184, 185, 252, 403; rebellion of, 367, 403
· Sonnenstein killing center, 71, 98, 143
· Sontag, Susan, 488
· Sorel, Georges, 435n
· Soviet POWs, 199; 14f13 and, 138; gassing of, 79, 160
· “special diet” (Sonderkost), 98
· Special Psychiatric Youth Department, 53
· “special treatment” (Sonderbehandlung), 136, 150-51; On medical blocks, 189; of tuberculosis patients, 261
· Speer, Albert, 114-16, 156, 474-75
· Spengler, Oswald, 127
· splitting, 419-20, 422-24
· SS (Schutzstaffel), 31n, 32, 64, 130, 186, 190, 261, 277, 426, 436, 445, 446n, 476, 485, 493; Ahnenerbe office of, 286; corruption of, 200-201; criminals in, 492; Dachau and, 152; death camps run by, 157; and disposal of corpses, 178; doctors in, see SS doctors; Economic and Administrative Department of, 155, 172; "euthanasia" program and, 70, 76, 124; Final Solution and, 157-59; 14f13 program and, 135-39; Gleichschaltung and, 38; Göring Institute and, 83n; Hygienic Institute of, see Hygienic Institute; I. G. Farben and, 187-88; Lebensborn and, 43; mental patients shot by, 78; Race and Settlement Office of, 121, 136; racial requirements of, 109, 438; rivalries between groups of, 479; Security Service of, see SD; sterilization experiments and, 274, 275; T4 program and, 134; Zyklon-B and, 160n, 170
 
S (cont)

· SS doctors, 147-49, 151, 179, 193-224; anti-Jewish ideology of, 204-5; collaborators and, 242-46, 250-52; doubling by, 210-13 experiments by, 269-71, 294 (see also Hygienic Institute); Klehr and, 265, 267; Langbein and, 452; lethal injections by, 154, 254-56, 261, 264; oath of loyalty to Hitler of, 207, 435; omnipotence of, 448; prisoner doctors and, 187, 214-34, 236-38, 295-97; psychological adaptation of, 196-97, 202-3, 433, 456; selections by, 163-67, 169, 172-75, 185, 189, 191, 193-95, 198, 208, 209, 437, 459; see also specific doctors
· Stahlhelm, 339
· Stalin, Josef, 277
· starvation: at Auschwitz, 187; doctors’ responses to, 199, 200; "euthanasia" through, 62, 96-99, 120; of Gypsies, 199; medical witness on effects of, 300-301 research on, 292; in T4 killing centers, 78
· Steinmeyer, Theodor, 142
· sterilization, 21-29, 38, 40, 110; biomedical vision and, 42; Clauberg’s experiments on, 43, 271-73, 275-77; Dering’s experiments on, 247-49; experiments on, 269-84, 302, 363, 462; Mennecke and, 139; and Nazification of medicine, 30; opposition to, 29, 298; public and medical discussion of, 48; Rudin's support of, 27-29; Wagner and, 35
· Stern, Fritz, 467-68
· Stern, Karl, 490
· Stevenson, Robert Louis, 429
· Stich, Dr., 85n
· Stockholm syndrome, 228n
· Storm Troopers, 128
· Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, The (Stevenson), 429
· Strasbourg University Hospital, 285
· Streicher, Julius, 461
· Stroessner, Gen. Alfredo, 380
· Student of Prague, The (film), 420, 42ln
· Stü rmer, Der (journal), 41, 461
· suicide, 150, 458; at Auschwitz, 220, 244; collective, 487-88; of Delmotte, 311; of Hitler, 453, 487; of Wirths, 384, 407-8, 410, 414
· surgical demonstrations, 294-95
· swastika, 128

T

· tattooing of numbers, 165
· technicization, 453-55
· Tesch, Bruno, 160n
· TESTA, 160n, 161
· T4 program, 65-76, 98, 100, 134, 155, 157; bureaucracy of medical deception in, 72-76; 14f13 program and, 135-39, 142, 143 halt of, 95, 96; killing done by doctors in, 71-72; organization of, 65-67; participants in, 103, 110, 123, 124; in Poland, 76-78; questionnaire for, 68-69; SS involvement in, 70
· Therapeutic Convalescent Institutions, 53
· Theresienstadt, 158, 184
· Theweleit, Klaus, 494n
· Thilo, Heinz, 147, 165, 283, 355
· Thuringian State Office for Racial Matters, 385-86
· Tichauer, Helen, 519n4
· Tigenhof killing center, 78
· Time magazine, 10
· Tondos, Wladyslaw, 262
· torture, medical collusion in, 200, 290
· transcendence, quest for, 473-76
· Treblinka, 124, 143, 157, 160; suicides at, 150
· Treitschke, Heinrich von, 35-36, 204
· triage, 148, 154; prisoner doctors and, 220-21, 223; selections compared to, 173-74, 244-45
· “Triumph of the Will, The” (film), 507n14
· tuberculosis patients: “euthanasia” for, 101, 136; experiments on, 296, 457n; phenol injections of, 254, 256, 257, 261, 262
· Turks, 466, 470, 473, 476, 489, 493
· twins: gassing of, 323; lethal injections of 255, 257 research on 269, 295-96 340, 347-60 366, 368; at selections, 168, 169, 342
· typhus, 148, 172, 462; experiments on, 255, 269, 291, 301; gassing and, 79; Mengele and, 373; phenol injections and 256-57 262 prisoner doctors and 217; selections and 190 Wirths and 386, 391, 393, 411
     

 
 Index 
U — Z

U

· Ullrich, Aquilin, 73
· Unger, Helmut, 49, 52n, 64, 511n11
· United Nations General Assembly, 466
· universities: Nazification of, 37-40; see also specific universities
· Uris, Leon, 248-49

V

· vasectomy, 22, 23
· Verschuer, Othmar Freiherr von, 27, 339-41, 347-49, 357-58, 362, 369
· Verschuer, Helmut, 358n
· Vetter, Hellmuth, 291-92
· “Victim of the Past, The” (Opfen der Vergangenheit) (film), 48-49
· Vietnam War, 464, 494
· Vitic, Rudolf, 237
· Volk, Nazi concept of, 14, 46, 474; "euthanasia" and, 30; Haeckel and, 441; Johann S. and, 129, 132 medical doubling and, 427; mentally ill and, 62, 83; physicians' relation to, 32, 33; professional identity and, 500; and propaganda against Jewish doctors, 42; state and, 63
W

· Waffen SS, 188, 290, 304, 340, 86, 390, 476
· Wagner, G. A., 26
· Wagner, Gerhard, 29, 32, 35, 40-41, 49, 50, 129-30
· Wagner, Richard, 127, 478
· Wahlmann, Adolf, 100, 101, 515n15
· Waldheim institution 142
· Wallace, Alfred 441
· Wandervö gel, 312
· Wannsee Conference, 10
· Wasserman, August von, 439
· Weber, Bruno, 289, 291 ; chemical brainwashing experiments of 289-90 Delmotte and 310; Ernst B. and 305, 307, 320; Mengele and, 369, 378 prisoner doctors and, 217, 325 selections by 308
· Weber, Max 15, 446 469, 496
· Wehrmacht, 15, 107, 108, 110, 285, 454
· Weimar Republic, 117n, 126-27, 468, 486
· Weininger, Otto, 490
· Weippert, George, 473n
· Weiss, Jean, 260
· Weizmann, Chaim, 131
· Weizsä cker, Victor von, 96
· Welsch, Peter, 264
· Wentzier, Ernst, 53n
· Wesse, Hildegaard, 97n
· White Rose, 39-40
 
W (cont)

· Widmann, Albert, 290
· Wiggam, A. E., 23
· Wilde, Oscar, 429
· "wild" euthanasia, 56, 96-102; killing by drugs in, 100-102, 256; starvation as killing method in, 96-99
· Wilhelm, Prince of Hesse, 126
· Wilm, Ernst, 93
· Wirth, Christian, 71, 134, 143, 157
· Wirths, Eduard, 6, 172, 291, 384-414, 446, 455, 459, 462; arrival at Auschwitz of, 187, 386; background of, 385-86; bureaucratic correctness of, 392-93; Clauberg and, 276; Communist political prisoners and, 240-41, 245; Delmotte and, 310; doubling by, 424; Entress and, 261; Ernst B. and, 308, 309; family ties of, 395-401; healing image maintained by, 404-6, 431; Hö ss and, 175; Kaschub and, 293; Langbein and, 257, 384-91, 393-95, 404, 405, 408-9, 411, 414; loyalty to Nazism of, 403-4; Mengele and, 341, 378; moral crusade of, 401-3; prisoner doctors and, 215, 238, 240, 247, 297, 298, 387, 389-91, 439; psychological adaptation of, 406-8; research conducted by, 251, 269, 270, 391-92; Samuel and, 251, 252; selections process and, 172-74, 197-98, 393-95
· Wirths, Helmut, 298, 392, 399-400, 403-4, 406, 407, 411-12
· Wischer, Gerhard, 142
· Woermann, Eduard, 516n11
· Wolken, Otto, 164, 181-84
· Wü rzburg Office of Racial Politics, 118
· Wü rzburg University Psychiatric Clinic 153

X

· X-ray sterilization experiments, 26, 276, 278-85

Y

· Yale Committee on Research with Human Subjects, 9

Z


· Zenkteller, Zenon, 249-50, 425
· Ziel und Weg (Aim and Road), 32
· Ziereis, France, 142
· Zweig, Stefan, 469
· Zyklon-B gas, 32, 160-62, 170, 290, 405, 453, 454, 462, 520n38
     
FINIS

 
THE NAZI DOCTORS:
Medical Killing and the
Psychology of Genocide

Robert J. Lifton
ISBN 0-465-09094
© 1986
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