Dr Robert Jay Lifton THE NAZI DOCTORS:
                        Medical Killing and the
                            Psychology of Genocide ©
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Notes to Pages 408-422 
(The numbers in brackets refer to the original, complete citation of a particular reference in each chapter. The dates in brackets denote original publication of a title.)    
73. Leslie H. Farber, The Ways of the Will: Essays toward a Psychology and Psychopathology of Will (New York: Basic Books, 1966), see chap. 4.  
74. Karl Lill to Albert Wirths, 2 December 1946.. 
75. Langbein, Menschen [1], p. 428. 
76. Lill to Albert Wirths, 2 December 1946; Lill to Wirths’s wife, 2 December 1976.  
77. Ibid.  
78. Documentary [3].
79. Albert Wirths to the chairman of the Frankfurt Auschwitz trial, 12 September 1964.  
Chapter 19. Doubling: The Faustian Bargain 
1. Paul W. Pruyser, “What Splits in Splitting?,” Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic (1975): 1-46. 
2. Ibid., p. 46. See also Jeffrey Lustman, “On Splitting,” in Kurt Eissler et al., eds., The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, vol. 19 (1977), pp. 19-54; Charles Rycroft, A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (New York: Basic Books, 1968), pp. 156-57.  
3. See Pierre Janet, The Major Symptoms of Hysteria (New York: Macmillan, 1907) and Psychological Healing (New York: Macmillan, 1923). See also Leston Havens, Approaches to the Mind (Boston: Little Brown, 1973) pp 34-62 and Henri F Ellenberger The Discovery of the Unconscious (New York: Basic Books, 1970), pp. 364-417. 
4. Sigmund Freud and Josef Breuer, Studies on Hysteria, in Standard Edition of the Works of Sigmund Freud, James Strachey, ed. (London: Hogarth Press, 1955 [1893-95], vol. II, pp. 3-305. 
5. Edward Glover, On the Early Development of Mind: Selected Papers on Psychoanalysis (New York: International Universities Press, 1956 [1943]), vol. I., pp. 307-23.  
6. Melanie Klein, “Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms,” International Journal of Psychoanalysis 27 (1946):99-110; and Otto F. Kernberg, “The Syndrome,” in Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism (New York: Jason Aronson, 1973), pp. 3-47.  
7. Henry V. Dicks, Licensed Mass Murder: A Socio-Psychological Study of Some SS Killers (New York: Basic Books, 1972). 
8. See, for example, Erik H. Erikson, Identity: Youth and Crisis (New York: W. W. Norton, 1968); Heinz Kohut, The Restoration of the Self (New York: International Universities Press, 1977); Henry Guntrip, Psychoanalytic Theory, Therapy and the Self (New York: Basic Books, 1971); and Robert Jay Lifton, The Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life (New York: Basic Books, 1983 [1979]).  
9. William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature (New York: Collier, 1961 [1902)), p. 144. 
10. Rank’s two major studies of this phenomenon are The Double: A Psychoanalytic Study (Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press 1971 [1925]) and “The Double as Immortal Self,” in Beyond Psychology (New York: Dover, 1958 [1941]), pp. 62-101. 
11. Rank, Double [10], pp. 3-9; Rank, Beyond Psychology [10], pp. 67-69. On “Der Student von Prag,” see Siegfried Kracauer From Caligari to Hitler A Psychological History of the German Film (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947), pp. 28-30.  
12. E. T. A. Hoffmann, “Story of the Lost Reflection,” in J. M. Cohen, ed., Eight Tales of Hofmann (London, 1952).  
13. Rank, Beyond Psychology [10], p. 98.  
14. Ibid. 
15. On Rank’s “artist-hero,” see Rank, Beyond Psychology [10], pp. 97-101.  
16. Rank, Double [10], p. 76. 
17. Ibid. 
18. Rank, Beyond Psychology [10], p. 82.  
19. Michael Franz Basch, “The Perception of Reality and the Disavowal of Meaning,” Annual of Psychoanalysis, 11 (New York: International Universities Press, 1982): 147.  
Medical Killing and the
Psychology of Genocide

Robert J. Lifton
ISBN 0-465-09094
© 1986
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