Dr Robert Jay Lifton THE NAZI DOCTORS:
                        Medical Killing and the
                            Psychology of Genocide ©
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Notes to Pages 147-156  
(The numbers in brackets refer to the original, complete citation of a particular reference in each chapter. The dates in brackets denote original publication of a title.)    
2. Ibid.; Antoni Keplnski, “‘Anus mundi,’” in Anthology, I 2:2. 
3. The discussion of these medical and nonmedical activities is based on interviews with Nazi doctors and with prisoner doctors, and on the following major sources: Rudolf Höss, Commandant of Auschwitz: The Autobiography of Rudolf Hoess (Cleveland: World, 1959) and “Die nichtäztliche Tätigkeit der SS-Ärzte im K.L. Auschwitz” (“The Nonmedical Activity of SS-Doctors in Auschwitz”), [photo of 1947 ms. (trial document)], in Hefte von Auschwitz 2 (1959): 81-84; Bernd Naumann, Auschwitz: A Report on the Proceedings Against Robert Karl Ludwig Mulka and Others Before the Court of Frankfurt (New York: Pantheon, 1966 [1965]); Hermann Langbein, Menschen in Auschwitz (Vienna: Europaverlag, 1972) and Der Auschwitz-Prozess: Eine Dokumentation, 2 vols. (Frankfurt/M.: Europäische Verlagsanstalt, 1965), as well as the articles in the Anthology series (1971) and many of those in the journal Hefte von Auschwitz (from 1959 on), published by the Polish State Auschwitz Museum. 
4. Majdanek bore some resemblance to Auschwitz regarding this policy but on a considerably smaller scale. See Adalbert Rückerl, NS-Vernichtungslager im Spiegel deutscher Strafprozesse (Munich: DTV, 1977), pp. 28-29; Josef Marszalek, Majdanek (Hamburg, 1982); Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, rev. and definitive ed. (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1985) vol. III, pp. 899, 1219. 
5. Transcript of judgment in Frankfurt Auschwitz trial, 19-20 August 1965 ( Ks 2/63), p. 74; Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (Chicago: Quadrangle, 1967 [1961]), pp. 150-51. 
6. Jean-François Steiner, Treblinka (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1967 [1966]), p. 110. 
Chapter 7. The Auschwitz Institution 
1 . See Hans Mommsen, “The Reichstag Fire and Its Political Consequences,” in Hajo Holborn, ed., Republic to Reich: The Making of the Nazi Revolution (New York: Pantheon, 1972), pp. 129-222.  
2. Martin Broszat, “The Concentration Camps 1933-45,” in Helmut Krausnick et al., Anatomy of the SS State (New York: Walker, 1968 [1965]), p. see pp. 400-420, 429-30. 
3. Ibid., pp. 431-35 (on Eicke); Rudolf Höss, Commandant of Auschwitz: The Autobiography of Rudolf Hoess (Cleveland: World, 1959), pp. 83-94. 
4. Broszat, “Camps” [2], pp. 450-52; Ota Kraus and Erich Kulka, The Death Factory: Document on Auschwitz (Oxford: Pergamon, 1966), pp. 36-40, 283; Tadeusz Iwaszko, “Die Häftlinge,” in Auschwitz: Geschichte und Wirklichkeit des Vernichtungslagers (Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 1980 [1978]), pp. 59-66; Wolken transcript, pp. 214-15; personal communication from Helen Tichauer (known as “Zippi aus der Schreibstube”), a former prisoner working in the Women’s Camp Office at Auschwitz-Birkenau, responsible among others for the production and distribution of badges.  
5. Broszat, “Camps” [2], pp. 426-27. 
6. Eugen Kogon, The Theory and Practice of Hell (New York: Berkley Books, 1980 [1950]), pp. 142, 149.  
7. Ibid,, pp. 145-51.  
8. Broszat, “Camps” [2], p. 430.  
9. Kogon, Theory and Practice [6], p. 150. 
10. Ibid., p. 146.  
11 . Benjamin B. Ferencz, Less Than Slaves: Jewish Forced Labor and the Quest for Compensation (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979).  
12. Höss, Commandant [3], p. 83.  
13. Broszat, “Camps” [2], p. 481; Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (Chicago: Quadrangle, 1967 [1961]), pp. 181-85.  
14. Joseph Borkin, The Crime and Punishment of I. G. Farben (New York: Free Press, 1978), pp. 115-27. 
15. Hilberg, Destruction [13], pp. 596-600. 
16. Höss, Commandant [3], p. 146.  
Medical Killing and the
Psychology of Genocide

Robert J. Lifton
ISBN 0-465-09094
© 1986
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