WHEREVER THEY MAY BE
© 1972, The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation
 
 
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criminals that all Frenchmen so rightly demanded. My research led to the following:

When the Wehrmacht withdrew from French territory, the German police officers, who would have been the principal defendants in a French trial, withdrew along with the German troops. These included the leaders of the S.D.-Security Police.

The S.D.-Security Police had been modeled on its superior department the RSHA, which Reinhard Heydrich created and directed until 1942. In Occupied France the S.D.-Security Police included, as did the RSHA, a Department IV, the Gestapo, whose function was the suppression of terrorists and Jews. The Gestapo's sinister reputation spread so rapidly that the French incorrectly applied the name to the entire S.D.-Security Police.

The very few German criminals who were apprehended were tried by a French military tribunal, but others wisely kept out of the French Occupation Zone in Germany, frequently living under a false name. Many had been policemen or intelligence agents before 1939; after 1945 they were protected by their former colleagues who remained in or returned to the postwar German police force.

The new government intelligence bureau in West Germany, the Bundesnachrichtendienst, which, due to the cold war, was concerned with fighting communism, recruited – with the blessing of the United States – as many experts in anti-subversive activities as it could. These experts were by and large former members of the Gestapo and the S.D. That explains why the Gestapo members not only had no need to hide, but also had no trouble getting their jobs back.

Those who went underground in the Soviet Zone flocked into the American Zone where, after 1948, they could as a general rule expect impunity and a job quite in their line. For example, Franz Six, an S.S.-general who had been sentenced to twenty years at hard labor at Nuremberg for massacres of Jews and civilians in the USSR, was soon released from prison. Reinhard Gehlen, the "gray general," whom the Americans installed as chief of West German intelligence, had not forgotten that Franz Six had been one of the S.D.-Security Police chiefs in Russia; he made him one of his principal deputies.

There is a tendency to believe that men like Six were not capable of re employment after the war because they were too old. They
    
   
 
WHEREVER THEY MAY BE
© 1972, The Beate Klarsfeld Foundation
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