Photographs Documenting the Holocaust in Hungary

by László Karsai Ph.D.


Introduction, by Harry W. Mazal OBE:

When the Soviet Army captured Budapest on January 17-18, 1945, it was too late to save the lives of 564,500 Jews who had been sent to the various death-camps run by the Nazis. The Budapest SS headquarters, however, was over-run by the Soviets before the Nazis were able to destroy a huge number of papers which documented their efforts to annihilate the Hungarian Jews. These documents, together with many of the photographs that are part of this essay, were bundled up by the Soviets and stored in the basement of the Hungarian Ministry of the Interior where they remained unseen for over forty years. When Hungary regained its independence from the Soviet block, the new Minister of the Interior discovered these documents and gave them to the Jewish Museum and Archives of Hungary where Dr. Karsai is presently cataloging and scanning them. We are pleased that the Museum has selected The Holocaust History Project as the site in the United States where eventually all of the tens of thousands of documents may be viewed. The small sampling shown below bears witness to those dreadful years.


Many people know - although many of them very much want to forget, and many more want to make others forget - that the Nazis and their European accomplices murdered six million Jews by employing various methods, such as hunger, beating, hanging, shooting, gassing, etc. during the Second World War. Nearly one tenth of the victims were Hungarian Jews, which means approximately 550,000 people. This estimate is based on a sound research of archival documents.

Even the definition is strange: a "Hungarian Jew." A major element constituting the tragedy of the Jews in Hungary was that those people who after their Emancipation (1867) became unreservedly Hungarians regarding their language, customs, clothing, and most importantly, their feelings, were excluded from the community of Hungarian citizens. Horthy Miklós’s regime (1920-1944) carried out their gradual exclusion by a series of Jewish Laws passed after 1938. Those very same Jews, about whom Theodor Herzl stated with resignation at the turn of the century that they became a "dry bough" of Zionism, suddenly realized that their homeland for which they had fought with such devotion during the First World War (more than 10,000 Jews died and thousands upon thousands were wounded and disabled) regarded them as alien enemies. This was the case in spite of the fact that the overwhelming majority of the Hungarian Jewry, notwithstanding the orthodoxim, regarded themselves as Hungarians following the "faith of Moses."

The reasons why the Hungarian Parliament agreed to pass the severely unlawful First Jewish Law is a subject of a historical debate. According to the traditional opinion it was meant to be a token of "good" intentions towards Hitler’s Reich, the neighbor of which Hungary became after the Anschluss (the Nazi Third Reich annexed Austria in March 1938). It is also possible that the right-wing conservative politicians aimed to take the wind out of the sails of the extreme right. It may well be that the example of the fascist Italy also exercised a considerable influence, since Mussolini in the same year passed anti-Semitic laws and decrees, with which he surprised even the members of his own party.

Three anti-Semitic laws completed the exclusion of the Hungarian Jews between 1938 and 1941. The first two laws made their economic situation more and more difficult; the Third Jewish Law, which was passed in 1941, however, was a real, Nuremberg-type, racial law introducing "race-protective" orders.

In July and August of 1941 nearly 16,000 Jews regarded as aliens or whose citizenship was stated to be unresolved, were deported to territories under German rule in Galicia where the Germans massacred them in the vicinity of Kamenec-Podolskij. This was the first "five-digit massacre" during the process of the Holocaust of the European Jewry. We do not have photos documenting this massacre. However, we have pictures about the second massacre which involved Hungarian Jews. In January 1942 in the Southern region (Délvidék, which was reclaimed from Yugoslavia) during an action taken against Serb partisans Hungarian gendarmeries murdered nearly 3,500 people. There were about 800 Jews among them. The gendarmeries shot their victims and threw their bodies into holes blown in the ice of the frozen-over Danube. Evidently, in order to frighten the civilians, they also hanged people in the public squares as we can see in the pictures.

Eichmann and his Sonderkommando of 200 men deported the Jews of the provinces to Auschwitz with the active help of the Hungarian clerks, policemen, solders and gendarmeries in the spring and early summer of 1944. The Jewry of the provinces, 437,000 people, made up more than fifty percent of the entire Hungarian Jewry. We have extremely few photos documenting this horrible "record achievement," since Eichmann and his "experts" were not "able" to deport so many Jews in such a short period from any other European country (between May 15 and June 6 of 1944).

According to archival documents, sporadic newspaper sources, and testimonies of survivors, the majority of the gentiles did not even try to help the persecuted people. There were only a few people who participated actively in the persecution besides the officials and functionaries. Their estimated number is greater, however, than the number of those people who tried to help actively. The photos documenting the deportation show that it takes only a few gendarmeries to march the obedient Jews to the railway station, to the cattle cars. We know from archival documents that after the deportation, the citizens began the looting of the deserted ghettos. In some places they acted defying the martial law; and in other places they had official permission. Obviously, the looters of Kôszeg belonged to the second category, since they happily allowed the taking of pictures. Both the looters and the loot indicate, that in this case, poor people were taking the belongings of other poor people.

Miklós Horthy put an end to the deportation of the Jews on the 6th of July, 1944. The reasons are still not entirely clear. It is possible that his decision was motivated by the landing of the allied forces on the shores of Normandy, or the offensive of the Red Army, or he was afraid that the capital would have been destroyed by a carpet bombing if the Jews of Pest had had been deported. Eichmann had a fit, but without Hungarian help he was not able to continue shipping "raw material" to the death factory of Auschwitz.

Ferenc Szálasi, the leader of the Arrow-Cross Party and the Hungarist Movement came to power with the help of the Germans, after Miklós Horthy, the governor of Hungary, announced that he appealed for cease-fire. The members of his government, when their picture was taken, broke a tradition: they did not wear their Hungarian gala-dress. They put on simple civilian clothes. Maybe they had a premonition concerning their fate: the majority of them would be sentenced to death by the court of the Hungarian People within a period of less than one and a half years.

Nearly 200,000 Jews were terrified in Budapest by the coming into power of Szálasi’s Arrow-Cross men. The troops of the Red Army were not able to liberate the ghetto of Pest until the 18th of January, 1945. Up to then, hundreds of defenseless Jews were murdered by Arrow-Cross men every day as the photos show. Many Jews were tortured horribly before their death, others were simply shot and thrown into the Danube which was filled with drift-ice. They handed over nearly 70,000 Jews to the Germans for forced labor. They worked on the fortification system in the Sub-Alps in order to "protect" Vienna.

In the spring of 1945 Budapest was reduced to ruins as we can see in the photographs. Because of the meaningless war fought, on the Nazis' side nearly one million lives were lost. From 825,000 Hungarian Jews 550,000 died, and some of the returning survivors emigrated within the next few years. Thus, in the place where one of the most flourishing Jewish communities of Middle-Eastern Europe once existed, now only approximately 5,000-70,000 Jews exist.

 

 

Intellectuals in the internment camp.
Intellectuals in the internment camp. Written on the picture: Some of the last Jewish members of the editorial staff of the "Pesti Hírlap," who were working until the great change, and then they landed in the factory internment camp. From left to right: Imre Gyôri, the former editor of the paper, Gyula Vidor former political columnist, Béla Szabó, János Fleiner Fóti, the former "dreaded" critic, Lajos Réti, the younger brother of Katalin Karádi's secretary, László Gál, the son of the actor Gyula Gál, and political contributor Ferenc Kemény.
 
Interned lawyers, actors and journalists
Interned lawyers, actors and journalists
 
Jewish intellectuals in the internment camp.
Jewish intellectuals in the internment camp.
 
Members of the editorial team of the newspaper
Members of the editorial team of the newspaper "Esti Kurir" in the internment camp (István Kardos was murdered).
 
Internment camp.
Internment camp. Written on the picture: "Some of the last Jewish 'Mochikans' of the Pester Lloyd in the factory internment camp." From left to right: Ernô Geiringer, György Kecskeméti, István Keller, Péter Sugár, Gyula Morgernstern, Jewish former journalists.
 
Internment camp.
Internment camp. Written on the picture: "The last Jewish members of the editorial staff of the 'Ujság' in the factory internment camp." From left to right: Zoltán Stób, Sándor Jemnitz, Ernô Halász, Géza Kônig, Endre György, Jenô Nádor.
 
Internment camp.
Internment camp. "The illustrious quartet (four-in-hand)." [written on the picture] The first man from the left is Mr. Rozsnyai the composer. He does not wear the yellow star because his wife is Christian. It did not help, however: he and his wife were murdered.
 
Ernô Ligeti was murdered.
Ernô Ligeti was murdered. Written on the picture: "Ernô Ligeti Lichtenstein, the former Jewish journalist and novelist in the factory internment camp."
 
An article in the
An article in the "Harc" about the Jews in the internment camp. (Title: "Together the Entire Illustrious Company!")
 
Leaders of banks and factories in the internment camp.
Leaders of banks and factories in the internment camp. Written on the picture: "These 'big Jews' also live in the internment camp: 1. Baron Samu Madarassy-Beck, the retired president of Leszámítoló Bank. 2. Emil Wolf, the former manager of the Chinoin chemical factory, who do not wear the yellow star even in the internment camp for Jews, because his wife is Christian. 3. Samu Weiner, the former 'leader' of the Jewish mill industry. 4. Károly Somogyi, the former co-owner of the Haasz and Somogyi hardware company."
 
From the newspaper
From the newspaper "Harc." The text written on the picture is abusive and sarcastic in the vein of anti-Semitic writing.
 
Internment camp.
Internment camp. Written on the picture: "Jewish women lying down in the factory internment camp."
 
Distribution of dinner in the internment camp.
Distribution of dinner in the internment camp.
 
Internment camp.
Internment camp. A group in the internment camp. In the front stands Zoli, the famous dwarf clown of Budapest.
 
Internment camp.
Internment camp.
 
Dezsô Kellér, the famous master of ceremonies in forced labor.
Dezsô Kellér, the famous master of ceremonies in forced labor. None of the listeners seen in this picture survived (Nyírség, 1943).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the skeleton staff (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the skeleton staff (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: cooks: J.
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: cooks: J. Szitnyai (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the entire forced labor battalion (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the entire forced labor battalion (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: construction work (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: on the way to Russia (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: one of the officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: one of the officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the same officer (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: the same officer (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: shoemakers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: shoemakers (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: kitchen (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: kitchen (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: camp fire (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: camp fire (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: a tableau (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: part of the camp (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: part of the camp (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: working on road construction (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: staff of officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
Scenes from the life of Jewish forced laborers: staff of officers (Riptinyec, 1940).
 
Ohrolruf camp.
Ohrolruf camp.
 
The center of the Arrow Cross Party at Andrássy street No.
The center of the Arrow Cross Party at Andrássy street No. 60: "the House of Fidelity."
 
The center of the Arrow Cross Party under Andrássy street No.
The center of the Arrow Cross Party under Andrássy street No. 60: "the House of Fidelity." (Partial enlargement of previous.)
 
The Arrow Cross Government (Ferenc Szálasi was the Prime Minister).
The Arrow Cross Government (Ferenc Szálasi was the Prime Minister).
 
The Szálasi Government.
The Szálasi Government.
 
Ferenc Szálasi enters the Castle of Buda.
Ferenc Szálasi enters the Castle of Buda.
 
Strolling people.
Strolling people.
 
The gate of a house at Kossuth Lajos Square no.
The gate of a house at Kossuth Lajos Square no. 18 is marked by a yellow star.
 
A Jewish woman clearing away rubble.
A Jewish woman clearing away rubble.
 
Moving into a house marked by a yellow star.
Moving into a house marked by a yellow star.
 
Jews being marched on the József ring (József körút) to the ghetto of Pest.
Jews being marched on the József ring (József körút) to the ghetto of Pest.
 
Handcuffing in Poland.
Handcuffing in Poland.
 
Many Jews who wanted to obtain a Schutzpass are queuing in front of the so called
Many Jews who wanted to obtain a Schutzpass are queuing in front of the so called "Glass House" (Budapest, Vadász street no. 29.) which was protected by the Swiss embassy.
 
School of Jewish children, refugees from Poland in Vác (1942-1943).
School of Jewish children, refugees from Poland in Vác (1942-1943).
 
The synagogue of Tarnopol which was set on fire by the Nazis.
The synagogue of Tarnopol which was set on fire by the Nazis.
 
Before being taken away.
Before being taken away.
 
Yellow star.
Yellow star.
 
A rabbi is forced to wash a car (Novy Sad, 1942).
A rabbi is forced to wash a car (Novy Sad, 1942).
 
Identity check by Arrow Cross men (still from film, 1955)
Identity check by Arrow Cross men. This is not a contemporaneous photo, but a still from the film Budapest Spring (1955).
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
 
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
 
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men in Budapest.
 
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victim of Arrow Cross men.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses in Budapest.
 
The skull of a victim of Arrow Cross men.
The skull of a victim of Arrow Cross men.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men. A mass of corpses.
 
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men in the court of the Synagogue of Dohány street.
Jewish victims of Arrow Cross men in the court of the Synagogue of Dohány street.
 
Corpses in a concentration camp.
Corpses in a concentration camp.
 
Corpses in a concentration camp.
Corpses in a concentration camp.
 
The death of a Jewish forced laborer.
The death of a Jewish forced laborer.
 
Novy Sad, a street after shooting committed by the gendarmerie.
Novy Sad, a street after shooting committed by the gendarmerie.
 
Hungarian gendarmes are shooting Jews on the streets in Novy Sad.
Hungarian gendarmes are shooting Jews on the streets in Novy Sad.
 
Executions in Novy Sad in 1942.
Executions in Novy Sad in 1942.
 
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
 
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
 
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
 
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
 
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
 
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
 
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Hanged Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
 
Hanging (Novy Sad, 1942)
Hanging (Novy Sad, 1942)
 
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
Executed Jews in the Southern region (Délvidék) in 1942.
 
Victims of the ghetto (Budapest, 19 January 1945).
Victims of the ghetto (Budapest, 19 January 1945).
 
A victim of the Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944).
A victim of the Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944).
 
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944)
 
A cart full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
A cart full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
 
Wagon full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
Wagon full of corpses (Budapest, 1945)
 
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
 
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
Victims of Arrow Cross men (Budapest, 1944-1945)
 
Murdered Jewish forced laborers at the end of 1944 in the Beregi forest at Füzesabony.
Murdered Jewish forced laborers at the end of 1944 in the Beregi forest at Füzesabony.
 
Exhumation of the bodies of Jewish forced laborers at Cservenka (November 5, 1957)
Exhumation of the bodies of Jewish forced laborers at Cservenka (November 5, 1957)
 
A group of objects found during the exhumation at Cservenka (November 5, 1957).
A group of objects found during the exhumation at Cservenka (November 5, 1957).
 
The identification of the corpse of 22 year old Magda Friedmann in Budapest.
The identification of the corpse of 22 year old Magda Friedmann in Budapest.
 
The grave-stone of Hanna Szenes in Budapest.
The grave-stone of Hanna Szenes in Budapest.
 
Patients and doctors murdered in the Jewish hospital in Maros street (Budapest, 1945).
Patients and doctors murdered in the Jewish hospital in Maros street (Budapest, 1945).
 
Corpse of a murdered Jew.
Corpse of a murdered Jew.
 
Funeral procession held for exhumed bodies of Jewish forced laborers (Budapest).
Funeral procession held for exhumed bodies of Jewish forced laborers (Budapest).
 
Exhumation from the depth of 60 cm in the forest of Kerecsend.
Exhumation from the depth of 60 cm in the forest of Kerecsend.
 
Exhumation in the forest of Kerecsend
Exhumation in the forest of Kerecsend
 
A corpse in a coffin in the forest of Kerecsend.
A corpse in a coffin in the forest of Kerecsend.
 
Re-examination: Dr. Németh
Re-examination: Dr. Németh and his colleague (in the forest of Kerecsend).
 
Exhumed corpse in the forest of Kerecsend.
Exhumed corpse in the forest of Kerecsend.
 
Corpses of a mother and her daughter in the forest of Kerecsend.
Corpses of a mother and her daughter in the forest of Kerecsend.
 
Taking 20 corpses to the cemetery of Eger from the forest of Kerecsend.
Taking 20 corpses to the cemetery of Eger from the forest of Kerecsend.
 
Coffins on the hill of the cemetery after the exhumation (Kerecsend).
Coffins on the hill of the cemetery after the exhumation (Kerecsend).
 
12 corpses in coffins (Kerecsend).
12 corpses in coffins (Kerecsend).
 
The lowering of the coffins to the grave (Eger).
The lowering of the coffins to the grave (Eger).
 
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger.
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger. They were murdered in the forest of Kerecsend. Mr. Székely the President of the Jewish Community of Eger delivers a speech.
 
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger.
The funeral of the 26 martyrs in Eger. They were murdered in the forest of Kerecsend.
 
Tank, refugees
Tank, refugees
 
Street in the time of war.
Street in the time of war.
 
Taking photos of the victims in the ghetto (Budapest, 19.
Taking photos of the victims in the ghetto (Budapest, 19. January 1945).
 
Prisoners of war
Prisoners of war
 
Portrait of a victim of skin transplantation.
Portrait of a victim of skin transplantation.
 
Shoe sole made of a desecrated Torah.
Shoe sole made of a desecrated Torah.
 
Drum made from a desecrated Torah.
Drum made from a desecrated Torah.
 
The emptying of apartments of Jews in Sopron (1944).
The emptying of apartments of Jews in Sopron (1944).
 
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
 
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
 
Jews marching towards the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
Jews marching towards the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
 
March of deportees to the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
March of deportees to the railway station in Kôszeg (1944).
 
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
 
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
Deportation of the Jewry of the provinces in Kôszeg (1944).
 
A hiding Jew.
A hiding Jew.
 
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
 
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
 
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
 
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
 
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
 
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
 
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
 
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
 
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
Looting of the deserted ghetto in the provinces.
 
A ravaged home.
A ravaged home.
 
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
 
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
 
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
 
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
 
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
 
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
 
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
March of deportees on the streets of Kôszeg in 1944.
 
Deportation: on the way to the railway station (Kôszeg, 1944).
Deportation: on the way to the railway station (Kôszeg, 1944).
 
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
 
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
Deportation (Balatonfüred, 1944).
 
Arrival at the concentration camp.
Arrival at the concentration camp.
 
Part of the camp.
Part of the camp.
 
Goldmark Hall (Budapest, 1945).
Goldmark Hall (Budapest, 1945).
 
Picture taken in Germany [?]
Picture taken in Germany [?]
 
The humiliating march of those who
The humiliating march of those who "dishonored the German race".
 
Placard against Jewish lawyers and doctors.
Placard against Jewish lawyers and doctors.
 
A deportee (Auschwitz).
A deportee (Auschwitz).
 
Arrival at Auschwitz (1944).
Arrival at Auschwitz (1944).
 
A group of people arriving at Auschwitz (1944).
A group of people arriving at Auschwitz (1944).
 
Medical experiment.
Medical experiment.
 
A small child with tattooed arm.
A small child with tattooed arm.
 
People lined up to celebrate in a camp after the Second World War.
People lined up to celebrate in a camp after the Second World War.
 
Wreaths for the memory of the martyrs.
Wreaths for the memory of the martyrs.
 
Shooting in the back of the neck.
Shooting in the back of the neck.
 
SS execution.
SS execution.
 
Victim in a concentration camp.
Victim in a concentration camp.
 
Heap of corpses.
Heap of corpses.
 
A dead person beside the rails.
A dead person beside the rails.
 
Corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
 
Interior of a barrack (Dachau).
Interior of a barrack (Dachau).
 
Heap of corpses in Dachau.
Heap of corpses in Dachau.
 
Corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
 
Corpses in Dachau.
Corpses in Dachau.
 
Victims in Dachau.
Victims in Dachau.
 
Victims in Dachau.
Victims in Dachau.