See Pressac, Auschwitz,95,108. See also the chart of the crematoriums in the various concentration camps in Pressac, Les Crematoires d'Auschwitz, 97.
A breakdown of the monthly figures for 1941 to 1944 are in Hans Marsalek, Die Geschichte des Konzetrationlagers Mauthausen: Dokumentation (Wien:1974), 128,129 under column III.
Table in Pressac, Les Crematoires d'Auschwitz, 144. Pressac interpolates 1500 into each missing death book. Information on Soviet POWs in Czech, Auschwitz Chronicle, 131.
AM, File B/12/31 for the period from September 26 to November 12, 1941.
Marsalek, Die Geschichte des Konzentrationslagers Mauthausen, 129.
Piper, "Gas Chambers and Crematoria", note 14 herein p. 175
Pressac, Auschwitz, 145.
Text in Pressac, Auschwitz, 211.
"Aktenvermerk Betr: Stromversorgung und Installaton des KL und KGL" in AA file 502-1-26 reel 20.
See John C. Zimmerman, How Reliable Are the Hoess Memoirs, http://www.holocaust-history.org/, 6,7. See also chapter 1 of the source cited in footnote 2 herein where many examples of the term "special treatment" as meaning murder are cited from contemporaneous German reports of the period.
Translation and photocopy of the original in Jean Claude Pressac with Robert Jan van Pelt, "The Machinery of Mass Murder at Auschwitz", in Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum, eds. The Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, 230-231. Mattogno argued that this document was a forgery because the type of gas detector mentioned in the memo was not the one which would have been used to detect prussic acid. Auschwitz: The End of a Legend,66. However, Pressac also realized that this was not the same type of gas detector which would have been used to detect prussic acid. Les Crematoires d'Auschwitz, 73. Rather, he saw the significance of the document as constituting "another leak of the existence of a lethal gas chamber in Crematorium II..." "The Machinery of Mass Murder at Auschwitz," 230. The letter only shows that Topf was ignorant as to the type of gas detector which would be needed. The real problem for Mattogno was to explain why the oven builders would know it to be necessary to have such a device for a crematorium which several weeks earlier was stated to have a "gassing cellar". Since he could not find any such explanation, he reverted to the familiar denier tactic of labeling anything which cannot be explained as a forgery.
Mattogno apparently realized the problem with his forgery thesis since in a subsequent article on this document he claimed that it was not a forgery but the alteration of an existing document to make it say something other than what it did. As usual, he presented no evidence for his latest peregrination. Carlo Mattogno, The "Gasprufer" of Auschwitz (http://www.codoh.com/gcgv/gcgvpruf.html), 2
Photocopy in Eugen Kogon,et.al, Nazi Mass Murder: A Documentary History on the Use of Poison Gas, 248. Translation on p. 247; Pressac, Auschwitz, 446,450
Haunverfugung Nr.108, May 5, 1943, AA, File 502-1-17, reel 19.
Czech, Auschwitz Chronicle, 216. Mattogno, The"Gasprufer" of Auschwitz, 8, places the outbreak in early July. Prisoners contracted typhus both before and after the epidemic.
Mattogno's argument in Auschwitz: The End of a Legend, 25. July negotiating information in Czech, "Origins of the Camp, Its Construction and Expansion", 34. Elsewhere, Czech identifies July 1 as the date the Bauleitung began to contact companies to bid on the building contracts for the crematoriums. Auschwitz Chronicle, 190. Expansion information in Czech, Auschwitz Chronicle, 218.
Czech, Auschwitz Chronicle, 50 for the expansion proposal. For background information on the ovens see Pressac, "The Machinery of Mass Murder at Auschwitz," 189-197.
Evelyn Le Chene, Mauthausen: History of a Concentration Camp (London: 1971) 184-189. I have subtracted prisoners transferred out of the camp to reach these percentages.
Erlauterungsbericht Zum Bauvorhaben Auschwitz O/S, July 15, 1942 AA, File 502-1-222, p. 2 reel 34. The registered male population of the camp was 21,421 on August 1, 1942 and 22,391 on December 1. The female population is not known on August 1. It was 8232 on December 1. The total camp population was 11,703 on January 19, 1941. Czech, Auschwitz Chronicle,127, 208, 275, 276. Thus, the camp population had essentially remained static during the typhus epidemic. Camp population for August 1943 in a report by the head of the German concentration camp system in PS 1169, NMT, Vol. 5, p. 382. Deaths of registered prisoners in Pressac, Les Crematoires d' Auschwitz, 145.
Pressac, "The Machinery of Mass Murder at Auschwitz," 190-191.
Rudolph Jakobskotter, "Die Entwicklung der Einascherung bis zu dem neuen elektrisch beheizten Heiblufteinascherungsofen in Erfurt", 64 Gesundheits-Ingenieur, Hefte 43 (October 25, 1941), 582-583,587. For the type of oven used in the concentration camps see Pressac, "The Machinery of Mass Murder at Auschwitz," 190-191.
Mattogno, Auschwitz: The End of a Legend, 30.
Pressac, Les Crematoires d' Auschwitz, 79-80.
Topf letter of April 4, 1943 to the Bauleitung in APMO, BW 30/34 p. 43
See the discussion at note 116 herein.
Mattogno, Auschwitz: The End of a Legend, 30.
AM, File B/12/31
Marsalek, Die Geschichte des Konzentrationslagers Mauthausen: Dokumentation, 128-129, 160.
Letter from Frau Gresens of the Bundesarchiv to the author dated December 8, 1998.
Mattogno and Deana, 9 and footnotes 60-64 on p. 38 where he cites documents from this file for 1943 and 1944 dealing with the Mauthausen ovens.
BA docs. 175-215 for the period September 1941-November 1941. Worker time sheets comprise Docs.188,192,196 and 213.
AM, File N/7/8; BA docs. 205,208
Topf letter of August 20, 1943 in AA File 502-1-313 reel 41; letter of June 13, 1944 and bill from December 23, 1943 in AA File 502-1-327, reel 42; billing information from 1943 in AA File 502-1-79, reel 23; various billing documents for 1942 in AA File 502-1-222, reel 34.
Pressac, Auschwitz, 95.
Marsalek, Die Geschichte des Konzentrationslager Mauthausen, 160.
Mattogno and Deana, 26.
Augustus Cobb, Earth Burial and Cremation (NY:1892), 133
Ibid. , 109-110.
A yearly breakdown appears in The Urn, Vol. 11, No. 5, June 1893, p. 4. The stillborn children are referred to as embryos.
William Eassie, Cremation of the Dead (London:1875),106-108; See also Scientific American , Vol. 30, May 9, 1874, p. 295 and Vol. 117, 1917, p. 22.
H.R.Haweis, Ashes to Ashes (London:1875), 101
Mattogno and Deana, 7,8
Statement by Mr. L.G.A. Leonard of TABO Cremators at Verbatim Conference of the 1975 Annual Conference organized by The Cremation Society of Great Britain (Eastbourne:1975), 83. My thanks to Dan Keren for providing me with the transcript of these proceedings, which is not available in the United States.
Text in Pressac, Auschwitz, 136
Transactions of the Cremation Society of England (London: 1885),60
Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, In 1926: Standing on the Edge of Time (Cambridge:1997), 62.
Oscar Overton, "The International Development of Cremation," First Joint Conference of Cemetery and Crematoria Authorities (Brighton:1932), 50-51.
Los Angeles Times,April 13, 1983, pp. 1, 24, 25.
From the ten hour PBS series Blood on the Snow aired in the summer of 1998.
Mattogno and Deana, 25. On the dates that each of the crematoria came into service see Czech, Auschwitz Chronicle, 352 and 364-365 for K II, 357 for K IV, 368 for K V and 426 for K III. While K II did not officially come into service until March 31, there was a test gassing there on March 13.
APMO, BW 30/34, p. 17
Deborah Dwork and Robert Jan van Pelt, Auschwitz: 1270 to the Present (NY:1996), 331-332.
APMO,Dpr.-Hd/11a, Nr.1600 and Nr. 1617, p. 96 of the Hoess trial.
The engineer's report in BA doc. 188 for October 9 to 15, 1941 shows repairs on the Gusen double muffle oven for a total of 30 hours, 10 hours per day, from October 13 to 15. For the same three day period there were 75 cremations (23, 19 and 33) AM, File B/12/31. BA doc. 188 states that there are repairs taking place on one of the ovens. This means that, assuming only one of the ovens was operational, it could still function while the other was undergoing repairs. Alternatively, it is possible that the oven being repaired was also incinerating corpses when work was not being done on it.
The report for the period from November 6 to 9, 1941, BA doc. 213, shows oven work for November 6 (4 hours), 7 (4 hours), 8 (4 hours) and 9 (8 hours). On those days there were 57, 94, 72 and 34 cremations respectively. AM, File B/12/31.
Mattogno and Deana, 25.
Czech, Auschwitz Chronicle, 442.
Transcript in Gerald Fleming, Hitler and the Final Solution (Berkeley:1994, 2nd ed), 202,206,207. Note that the earlier edition of this work does not contain these transcripts. Predictably, deniers have attempted to discredit these transcripts on the basis that the Soviets forced the Topf engineers to say what they did. But in fact, a close reading of these transcripts suggests that the opposite is true. The engineers were directly contradicting a report filed by the Soviet authorities with the War Crimes Tribunal which claimed that these ovens could burn 9000 per day, which is twice the Bauleitung estimate of June 28, 1943. The Soviets never acknowledged any limitations on the on the ovens as the engineers did. This may account for the fact as to why these transcripts were not released until the period of Glasnost (openness) in the Soviet Union in 1989. Soviet report USSR-008 in German in International Military Tribunal, Trials of Major War Criminals (Washington D.C, 1947), Vol. 39, 241-261. See p. 261 for the part of the report that alleges that the ovens could burn 279,000 per month.
Ibid. , 205. Prufer said that two bodies were simultaneously incinerated in his presence.p. 207.
Filip Muller, Eyewitness Auschwitz: Three Years in the Gas Chambers (NY:1979), 124
Zundel was tried and convicted for spreading "false news" (Holocaust denial) under a law that, on appeal, was struck down by the Canadian Supreme Court. The testimony is only being quoted to establish its lack of accuracy in connection with Holocaust denial. I do not approve of laws which prohibit hate speech.
Robert Lenski, The Holocaust on Trial (Deacatur:1989),251. However, he went on say that the 46 ovens could handle a total of 184 bodies per day or four per oven.p. 252. This book is a denier account of the trial.
The Leuchter Report,10. Information for Kremas II through V. Leuchter placed the capacity of Krema I at 18 per day, bringing the total to 156.
Mattogno and Deana, 2.
AM, File B/12/31
Czech, Auschwitz Chronicle, 71-72. Text of the original German in Reimund Schnabel, Macht Ohne Moral (Frankfurt :1957), 346.
Text in Pressac, Auschwitz, 136.
Lenski, The Holocaust on Trial, 251,254.
Pressac, "Machinery of Mass Murder at Auschwitz", 189-190. The date was July 14, 1941.
Text of a letter he wrote on November 15, 1942 in Pressac, Auschwitz, 99.
Pressac, "Machinery of Mass Murder at Auschwitz" 212.
AM, File B/12/31 contains the cremation information. Mattogno claim in Mattogno and Deana, 19.
The information for November 7 shows that operations began at 11:15 A.M. The last cremations occurred at 5 A.M. on November 8. There is no time specified for how long these 5 A.M. cremations lasted. However, the November 8 cremations began at 7 A.M. This means that the November 7 cremations lasted from 11:15 A.M. on November 7 to 7 A.M. on November 8, or 19 hours and 45 minutes .
Mattogno's claim that the November 8 cremations took 24 hours and 30 minutes is based on his placing these cremations as beginning at 1 A.M. In fact they began at 7 A.M. He should have known this since the November 7 cremations were still taking place at 1 A.M. on November 8, a fact clearly shown in the time sheets. The November 8 time sheets show operations beginning at 7 A.M. The last operation began at 1:30 A.M. on November 9. It is not known how long this 1:30 operation lasted. But it is not likely that it lasted longer than two or three hours since six loads of coke were used. Topf repair sheets from this date show that 4 hours of work were done on the ovens on November 8. BA doc.213. This means that the ovens were down for four hours on November 8. This must have occurred between 7 A.M. and 4 P.M. on November 8 because the time sheets show that only 8 loads of coke were used during these 9 hours. However, a total of 35 loads of coke were for the November 8 operation, 21 of which were used for the 9 1/2 hours from 4 P.M. on November 8 to 1:30 A.M. on November 9. We can thus calculate the total time usage on November 8 as between 16 and 17 hours. 7 A.M. to 1:30 A.M.= 18 1/2 hours. Add two or three hours for the 1:30 operation and subtract four hours for the repairs. This time usage would be consistent with the time taken for cremations on rest of the dates for October 31 to November 12, especially the November 7 information. My thanks to Dan Keren for calling Mattogno's error to my attention.
It is also instructive to note that Mattogno was aware of the four hours of work done on the Gusen ovens on November 8 because he had examined the repair sheet. Therefore, he must have known that the ovens had to have been shut down for at least four hours, meaning that they could not have functioned for the time period he was alleging.